Hydrogen and Fuel Cells : Emerging Technologies and Applications

Bent Sørensen

  • 出版商: Academic Press
  • 出版日期: 2005-02-17
  • 售價: $1,140
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,083
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 400
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0126552819
  • ISBN-13: 9780126552812

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商品描述

Description:

The next several years will see a massive emergence of hydrogen fuel cells as an alterative energy option in both transportation and domestic use. The long-range expectation is that hydrogen will be used as a fuel, produced either from renewable energy, fossil, or nuclear sources, offering an environmentally acceptable and efficient source of power/energy.

The techniques associated with all the conversion steps and the set-up of systems are described in detail in this book, at a level suited for both academic and professional use. The book not only describes the "how" and "where" aspects hydrogen fuels cells may be used, but also the obstacles and benefits of its use, as well as the social implications (both economically and environmental).

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction: The current relevance of fuel cells and hydrogen
Car pollution in cities becoming unacceptable. Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change issues. Soon expected decline in fossil fuel production. Supply security, etc.


2. Hydrogen
2.1 Production
Steam reforming, gasification, production from biomass, electrolysis, thermal splitting of water, photodissociation, fuel cell in reverse operation.
2.2 On-board fuel reforming
In-vehicle hydrogen production from bio- or fossil fuels
2.3 Conversion
Combustion, conversion into liquid or gaseous fuels, fuel cell electricity and heat production as described below
2.4 Storage
Compressed gas, liquefied, metal hydride storage, carbon nanotube storage, reversible chemical reactions
2.5 TransmissionPipeline transmission, container shipping
2.6 Direct use
Industrial processes, raw material


3. Fuel cells
3.1 Basic concepts
Basic electrochemistry of fuel cells, modelling aspects, and comparison with batteries.
3.2 Working temperature
The importance of working temperature for specific applications is discussed. Each of the following sections will discuss the physics and chemistry of the particular cell type, its technical layout, intended uses and current development stage. Questions addressed include stability, life of components, degradation, etc.
3.3 Molten carbonate cells
3.4 Solid oxide cells
3.5 Phosphoric acid and alkaline cells
3.6 Proton exchange membrane cells
3.7 Direct methanol and other non-hydrogen cells

4. Systems
4.1 Passenger car
4.2 Bus, lorry
4.3 Ships, trains
4.4 Power plants
4.5 Building integrated

5. Implementation scenarios
5.1 Infrastructure requirements
Distribution. Use of pipelines, filling stations. Local conversion
5.2 Norm issues
National and international standards, safety norms
5.3 Scenario based on fossil or nuclear energy
5.4 Scenario based on renewable energy
5.5 Importance of efficiency
6. Social implications
6.1 Cost expectations
Component level, systems level, for the technologies and system structures above
6.2 Environmental impacts
Life-cycle analyses, with assumptions of recycling catalysts, etc.
6.3 Uncertainties
Life-time, costs, efficiency, shifts in time-tables, etc.

7. Conclusion: a conditional outcome
The hydrogen economy. Political obstacles. Things to consider

References
Index