Systems Performance: Enterprise and the Cloud (Paperback)

Brendan Gregg



The Complete Guide to Optimizing Systems Performance


Written by the winner of the 2013 LISA Award for Outstanding Achievement in System Administration


Large-scale enterprise, cloud, and virtualized computing systems have introduced serious performance challenges. Now, internationally renowned performance expert Brendan Gregg has brought together proven methodologies, tools, and metrics for analyzing and tuning even the most complex environments. Systems Performance: Enterprise and the Cloud focuses on Linux® and Unix® performance, while illuminating performance issues that are relevant to all operating systems. You’ll gain deep insight into how systems work and perform, and learn methodologies for analyzing and improving system and application performance. Gregg presents examples from bare-metal systems and virtualized cloud tenants running Linux-based Ubuntu®, Fedora®, CentOS, and the illumos-based Joyent® SmartOS™ and OmniTI OmniOS®. He systematically covers modern systems performance, including the “traditional” analysis of CPUs, memory, disks, and networks, and new areas including cloud computing and dynamic tracing. This book also helps you identify and fix the “unknown unknowns” of complex performance: bottlenecks that emerge from elements and interactions you were not aware of. The text concludes with a detailed case study, showing how a real cloud customer issue was analyzed from start to finish.


Coverage includes

• Modern performance analysis and tuning: terminology, concepts, models, methods, and techniques

• Dynamic tracing techniques and tools, including examples of DTrace, SystemTap, and perf

• Kernel internals: uncovering what the OS is doing

• Using system observability tools, interfaces, and frameworks

• Understanding and monitoring application performance

• Optimizing CPUs: processors, cores, hardware threads, caches, interconnects, and kernel scheduling

• Memory optimization: virtual memory, paging, swapping, memory architectures, busses, address spaces, and allocators

• File system I/O, including caching

• Storage devices/controllers, disk I/O workloads, RAID, and kernel I/O

• Network-related performance issues: protocols, sockets, interfaces, and physical connections

• Performance implications of OS and hardware-based virtualization, and new issues encountered with cloud computing

• Benchmarking: getting accurate results and avoiding common mistakes


This guide is indispensable for anyone who operates enterprise or cloud environments: system, network, database, and web admins; developers; and other professionals. For students and others new to optimization, it also provides exercises reflecting Gregg’s extensive instructional experience.





大型企業、雲端和虛擬化計算系統帶來了嚴重的效能挑戰。現在,國際知名效能專家Brendan Gregg匯集了經過驗證的方法論、工具和指標,用於分析和調整最複雜的環境。《系統效能:企業和雲端》專注於Linux®和Unix®效能,同時闡明了所有作業系統相關的效能問題。您將深入了解系統的運作和效能,並學習分析和改善系統和應用程式效能的方法。Gregg提供了從裸機系統到運行基於Linux的Ubuntu®、Fedora®、CentOS以及基於illumos的Joyent® SmartOS™和OmniTI OmniOS®的虛擬化雲端租戶的實例。他系統地介紹了現代系統效能,包括對CPU、記憶體、磁碟和網路的「傳統」分析,以及包括雲端計算和動態追蹤在內的新領域。本書還幫助您識別和修復複雜效能中的「未知未知」:從您不知道的元素和互動中出現的瓶頸。本書以一個詳細的案例研究結尾,展示了如何從頭到尾分析一個真實的雲端客戶問題。


• 現代效能分析和調整:術語、概念、模型、方法和技術

• 動態追蹤技術和工具,包括DTrace、SystemTap和perf的示例

• 內核內部:揭示作業系統的運作

• 使用系統可觀察性工具、介面和框架

• 理解和監控應用程式效能

• 優化CPU:處理器、核心、硬體執行緒、快取、互連和內核排程

• 記憶體優化:虛擬記憶體、分頁、交換、記憶體架構、匯流排、位址空間和配置器

• 檔案系統I/O,包括快取

• 儲存裝置/控制器、磁碟I/O工作負載、RAID和內核I/O

• 與網路相關的效能問題:協定、插座、介面和實體連接

• 作業系統和基於硬體的虛擬化的效能影響,以及在雲端計算中遇到的新問題

• 基準測試:獲得準確結果並避免常見錯誤