Principles of Semiconductor Devices (Hardcover)

Sima Dimitrijev

  • 出版商: Oxford University Press
  • 出版日期: 2005-10-27
  • 售價: $1,200
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,140
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 578
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0195161130
  • ISBN-13: 9780195161137

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Description:

Quantum mechanical phenomena-including energy bands, energy gaps, holes, and effective mass-constitute the majority of properties unique to semiconductor materials. Understanding how these properties affect the electrical characteristics of semiconductors is vital for engineers working with today's nanoscale devices.

Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Principles of Semiconductor Devices covers the dominant practical applications of semiconductor device theory and applies quantum mechanical concepts and equations to develop the energy-band model. The text presents quantum mechanics through examples related to the energy-band model, providing students with a deeper understanding of the energy-band diagrams used to explain semiconductor device operation. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to the electronic layout and design of integrated circuits.

The author has divided the text into four parts. Part I explains semiconductor physics, and Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors. Part III discusses the diode, MOSFET, and BJT topics that are needed for circuit design. Part IV introduces photonic devices, microwave FETs, negative-resistance diodes, and power devices. The chapters and the sections in each chapter are organized hierarchically. Core material is presented first, followed by advanced topics, allowing instructors to select more rigorous, design-related topics as they see fit.

 

Table of Contents:

All chapters end with a Summary, Problems, and Review Questions.
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS
1. Semiconductor Crystals: Atomic-Bond Model
1.1. Crystal Lattices
1.1.1. Unit Cell
1.1.2. Planes and Directions
1.1.3. Atomic Bonds
1.2. Current Carriers
1.2.1. Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors
1.2.2. N-Type and P-Type Doping
1.2.3. Electroneutrality Equation
1.2.4. Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium
1.3 Basics of Crystal Growth and Doping Techniques.
1.3.1 Crystal-Growth Techniques.
1.3.2 Doping Techniques
.
2. Quantum Mechanics and Energy-Band Model
2.1. Electrons as Waves
2.1.1. De Broglie Relationship between Particle and Wave Properties
2.1.2. Wave Function and Wave Packet
2.1.3. Schrodinger Equation
2.2. Energy Levels in Atoms and Energy Bands in Crystals
2.2.1. Atomic Structure
2.2.2. Energy Bands in Metals
2.2.3. Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators
2.3. Electrons and Holes as Particles
2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real E-K Diagrams.
2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle.
2.3.3 Density of Electron States.
2.4. Population of Electron States: Concentrations of Electrons and Holes
2.4.1. Fermi-Dirac Distribution
2.4.2. Maxwell-Boltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States
2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping.
2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and Quasi-Fermi Levels
.
3. Drift
3.1. Energy Bands with Applied Electric Field
3.1.1. Energy-Band Presentation of Drift Current
3.1.2. Resistance and Power Dissipation due to Carrier Scattering
3.2. Ohm's Law, Sheet Resistance, and Conductivity
3.2.1. Designing Integrated-Circuit Resistors
3.2.2. Differential Form of Ohm's Law
3.2.3. Conductivity Ingredients
3.3. Carrier Mobility
3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities.
3.3.2 Mobility Definition.
3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section.
3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule.
3.3.5 Hall Effect
.
4. Diffusion
4.1. Diffusion-Current Equation
4.2. Diffusion Coefficient
4.2.1. Einstein Relationship
4.2.2. Haynes-Shockley Experiment
4.2.3. Arrhenius Equation
4.3. Basic Continuity Equation
5. Generation and Recombination
5.1. Generation and Recombination Mechanisms
5.2. General Form of the Continuity Equation
5.2.1. Recombination and Generation Rates
5.2.2. Minority-Carrier Lifetime
5.2.3. Diffusion Length
5.3. Generation and Recombination Physics and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) Theory
5.3.1. Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium
5.3.2. Steady-State Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination Rate
5.3.3. Special Cases
5.3.4. Surface Generation and Recombination
PART II: FUNDAMENTAL DEVICE STRUCTURES
6. P-N Junction
6.1 P-N Junction Principles.
6.1.1. P-N Junction in Thermal Equilibrium: Built-In Voltage.
6.1.2. Reverse-Biased P-N Junction
6.1.3. Forward-Biased P-N Junction
6.1.4. Breakdown Phenomena
6.1.4.1. Avalanche Breakdown
6.1.4.2. Tunneling Breakdown
6.2. DC Model
6.2.1. Basic Current-Voltage (I-V) Equation
6.2.2. Important Second-Order Effects
6.2.3. Temperature Effects
6.3. Capacitance of Reverse-Biased P-N Junction
6.3.1. C-V Dependence
6.3.2. Depletion-Layer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation
6.3.3. SPICE Model for the Depletion-Layer Capacitance
6.4. Stored-Charge Effects
6.4.1. Stored Charge and Transit Time
6.4.2. Relationship between the Transit Time and the Minority-Carrier Lifetime
6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: Reverse-Recovery Time
.
7. Metal-Semiconductor Contact and MOS Capacitor
7.1. Metal-Semiconductor Contact
7.1.1. Schottky Diode: Rectifying Metal-Semiconductor Contact
7.1.2. Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Contacts
7.2. MOS Capacitor
7.2.1. Properties of the Gate Oxide and the Oxide-Semiconductor Interface
7.2.2. C-V Curve and the Surface-Potential Dependence on Gate Voltage
7.2.3 Energy-Band Diagrams.
7.2.4 Flat-Band Capacitance and Debye Length
.
8. MOSFET
8.1. MOSFET Principles
8.1.1. MOSFET Structure
8.1.2. MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Switch
8.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect.
8.1.4 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source: Mechanisms of Current Saturation.
8.2. Principal Current-Voltage Characteristics and Equations
8.2.1. SPICE Level 1 Model
8.2.2. SPICE Level 2 Model
8.2.3. SPICE Level 3 Model: Principal Effects
8.3. Second-Order Effects
8.3.1. Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage
8.3.2. Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage)
8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance.
8.3.4. Threshold-Voltage Related Short-Channel Effects
8.3.5. Threshold Voltage Related Narrow-Channel Effects
8.3.6. Subthreshold Current
8.4. Nanoscale MOSFETs
8.4.1. Down-Scaling Benefits and Rules
8.4.2. Leakage Currents
8.4.3. Advanced MOSFETs
8.4.4 Reliability Issues.
8.5. MOS-Based Memory Devices
8.5.1. 1C1T DRAM Cell
8.5.2 Flash-Memory Cell
.
9. BJT
9.1. BJT Principles
9.1.1. BJT as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source
9.1.2. BJT Currents and Gain Definitions
9.1.3 Dependence of a and b Current Gains on Technological Parameters.
9.1.4. The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch
9.1.5. Complementary BJT
9.1.6. BJT Versus MOSFET
9.2. Principal Current-Voltage Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model in Spice
9.2.1. Injection Version
9.2.2. Transport Version
9.2.3. SPICE Version
9.3. Second-Order Effects
9.3.1. Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance
9.3.2. Parasitic Resistances
9.3.3. Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Low-Current Effects
9.3.4. Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Gummel-Poon Model for High-Current Effects
9.4. Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
PART III: DEVICE TECHNOLOGY AND ELECTRONICS
10. Integrated-Circuit Technologies
10.1. A Diode in IC Technology
10.1.1. Basic Structure
10.1.2. Lithography
10.1.3. Process Sequence
10.1.4. Diffusion Profiles
10.2. MOSFET Technologies
10.2.1. Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS)
10.2.2. NMOS Technology
10.2.3. Basic CMOS Technology
10.2.4. Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Technology
10.3. Bipolar IC Technologies
10.3.1. IC Structure of NPN BJT
10.3.2. Standard Bipolar Technology Process
10.3.3. Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes
10.3.4. Layer Merging
10.3.5. BiCMOS Technology
11. Device Electronics: Equivalent Circuits and Spice Parameters
11.1. Diodes
11.1.1. Static Model and Parameters in SPICE
11.1.2. Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE
11.1.3. Parameter Measurement
11.1.4. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
11.2. MOSFET
11.2.1. Static Model and Parameters: Level 3 in SPICE
11.2.2. Parameter Measurement
11.2.3. Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE
11.2.4. Simple Digital Model
11.2.5. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
11.3. BJT
11.3.1. Static Model and Parameters: Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon Levels in SPICE
11.3.2. Parameter Measurement
11.3.3. Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE
11.3.4. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
11.3.5. Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models
PART IV: SPECIFIC DEVICES
12. Photonic Devices
12.1. Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
12.2. Photodetectors and Solar Cells
12.2.1. Biasing for Photodetector and Solar-Cell Applications
12.2.2. Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells
12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation.
12.3. Lasers
12.3.1. Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts
12.3.2. A Typical Heterojunction Laser
13. Microwave FETs and Diodes
13.1. Gallium Arsenide versus Silicon
13.1.1. Dielectric-Semiconductor Interface: Enhancement versus Depletion FETs
13.1.2. Energy Gap
13.1.3. Electron Mobility and Saturation Velocity
13.1.4. Negative Dynamic Resistance
13.2. JFET
13.2.1. JFET Structure
13.2.2. JFET Characteristics
13.2.3. SPICE Model and Parameters
13.3. MESFET
13.3.1. MESFET Structure
13.3.2. MESFET Characteristics
13.3.3. SPICE Model and Parameters
13.4. HEMT
13.4.1. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG)
13.4.2. HEMT Structure and Characteristics
13.5. Negative Resistance Diodes
13.5.1. Amplification and Oscillation by Negative Dynamic Resistance
13.5.2. Gunn Diode
13.5.3. IMPATT Diode
13.5.4. Tunnel Diode
14. Power Devices
14.1. Power Diodes
14.1.1. Drift Region in Power Devices
14.1.2. Switching Characteristics
14.1.3. Schottky Diode
14.2. Power MOSFET
14.3. IGBT
14.4. Thyristor
Bibliography
Answers to Selected Problems
Index