3D Computer Graphics, 3/e (Hardcover)

Alan Watt

  • 出版商: Addison-Wesley
  • 出版日期: 1999-12-16
  • 定價: $1,550
  • 售價: $1,550
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,473
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 624
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0201398559
  • ISBN-13: 9780201398557

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The third edition of this book continues to focus on the 3D aspects of computer graphics, and reflects the growing demand for real-time applications such as games and virtual reality. It also includes new material on Visualization in Scientific Computing and graphics standards such as PHIGS. It deals with the processes involved in converting a mathematical or geometric description of an object–a computer graphics model–into a visualization–a two-dimensional projection–that simulates the appearance of a real object. Alan Watt provides students with a knowledge of complex and emerging topics in the field of computer graphics, including advances in rendering and new material on animation. This is an appropriate text for a first course on computer graphics at the Junior, Senior or graduate level.

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Appropriate Courses

Introduction to Computer Graphics at the junior, senior or graduate level.

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  • NEW! Chapter on Advanced Radiosity.
  • NEW! Chapter on Pre-Calculation Techniques.
  • NEW! Material about real-time applications for high complexity, such as progressive mesh optimization, BSP tree, pre-calculation techniques, and photo-modeling techniques.
  • Enhanced coverage of advances in rendering.
  • Complete revision of material on animation.
  • Includes a CD-ROM with a 400-image study and several computer graphics programs.
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Table Of Contents

(All chapters, except Chapter 1, begin with an Introduction.)
1. Mathematical Fundamentals Of Computer Graphics.

Manipulating Three-Dimensional Structures.
Three-Dimensional Geometry In Computer Graphics - Affine Transformations.
Transformations For Changing Coordinate Systems.

Structure-Deforming Transformations.
Vectors And Computer Graphics.
Addition Of Vectors.
Length Of Vectors.
Normal Vectors And Cross Products.
Normal Vectors And Dot Products.
Vectors Associated With The Normal Vector.

Rays And Computer Graphics.
Ray Geometry - Intersections.
Intersections - Ray-Sphere.
Intersections - Ray-Convex Polygon.
Intersections - Ray-Box.
Intersections - Ray-Quadric.
Ray Tracing Geometry - Reflections And Refraction.

Interpolating Properties In The Image Plane.

2. Representation And Modelling Of Three-Dimensional Objects (1).
Polygonal Representation Of Three-Dimensional Objects.
Creating Polygonal Objects.
Manual Modelling Of Polygonal Objects.
Automatic Generation Of Polygonal Objects.
Mathematical Generation Of Polygonal Objects.
Procedural Polygon Mesh Objects - Fractal Objects.

Constructive Solid Geometry (Csg) Representation Of Objects.
Space Subdivision Techniques For Object Representation.
Octrees And Rendering.
Bsp Trees.
Creating Voxel Objects.

Representing Objects With Implicit Functions.
Scene Management And Object Representation.
Polygon Mesh Optimization.


3. Representation And Modelling Of Three-Dimensional Objects (2).
BÉZier Curves.
Joining BÉZier Curve Segments.
Summary Of B-Spline Curve Properties.

B-Spline Representation.
B-Spline Curves.
Uniform B-Splines.
Non-Uniform B-Splines.
Summary Of B-Spline Curve Properties.

Rational Curves.
Rational BÉZier Curves.

From Curves To Surfaces.
Continuity And BÉZier Patches.
BÉZier Patch Object - The Utah Teapot.

B-Spline Surface Patches.
Modelling Or Creating Patch Surfaces.
Cross-Sectional Or Linear Axis Design Example.
Control Polyhedron Design - Basic Technique.
Creating Patch Objects By Surface Fitting.

From Patches To Objects.

4. Representation And Rendering.
Rendering Polygon Meshes - A Brief Overview.
Rendering Parametric Surfaces.
Rendering Directly From The Patch Descriptions.
Patch To Polygon Conversion.
Object Space Subdivision.
Image Space Subdivision.

Rendering A Csg Description.
Rendering A Yoxel Description.
Rendering Implicit Functions.

5. The Graphics Pipeline 1: Geometric Operations.
Coordinate Spaces In The Graphics Pipeline.
Local Or Modelling Coordinate Systems.
World Coordinate Systems.
Camera Or Eye Or View Coordinate System.

Operations Carried Out In View Space.
Culling Or Back-Face Elimination.
The View Volume.
Three-Dimensional Screen Space.
View Volume And Depth.

Advanced Viewing Systems (Phigs And Cks).
Overview Of The Phigs Viewing System.
The View Orientation Parameters.
The View Mapping Parameters.
The View Plane In More Detail.
Implementing A Phigs-Type Viewing System.

6. The Graphics Pipeline 2: Rendering Or Algorithmic Processes.
Clipping Polygons Against The View Volume.
Shading Pixels.
Local Reflection Models.
Local Reflection Models - Practical Points.
Local Reflection Models - Light Source Considerations.

Interpolative Shading Techniques.
Interpolative Shading Techniques - Gouraud Shading.
Interpolative Shading Techniques - Phong Shading.
Renderer Shading Options.
Comparison Of Gouraud And Phong Shading.

Rasterizing Edges.
Rasterizing Polygons.

Order Of Rendering.
Hidden Surface Removal.
The Z-Buffer Algorithm.
Z-Buffer And Csg Representation.
Z-Buffer And Compositing.
Z-Buffer And Rendering.
Scan Line Z-Buffer.
Spanning Hidden Surface Removal.
A Spanning Scan Line Algorithm.
Z-Buffer And Complex Scenes.
Z-Buffer Summary.
Bsp Trees And Hidden Surface Removal.

Multi-Pass Rendering And Accumulation Buffers.

7. Simulating Light-Object Interaction: Local Reflection Models.
Reflection From A Perfect Surface.
Reflection From An Imperfect Surface.
The Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Function.
Diffuse And Specular Components.
Perfect Diffuse - Empirically Spread Specular Reflection (Phong).
Physically Based Specular Reflection.
Modelling The Micro-Geometry Of The Surface.
Shadowing And Masking Effects.
Viewing Geometry.
The Fresnel Term.

Pre-Computing Brdfs.
Physically Based Diffuse Component.

8. Mapping Techniques.
Two-Dimensional Texture Maps To Polygon Mesh Objects.
Inverse Mapping By Bilinear Interpolation.
Inverse Mapping By Using An Intermediate Surface.

Two-Dimensional Texture Domain To Bi-Cubic Parametric Patch Objects.
Bump Mapping.
A Multi-Pass Technique For Bump Mapping.
A Pre-Calculation Technique For Bump Mapping.

Light Maps.
Environment Or Reflection Mapping.
Cubic Mapping.
Sphere Mapping.
Environmental Mapping: Comparative Points.
Surface Properties And Environment Mapping.

Three-Dimensional Texture Domain Techniques.
Three-Dimensional Noise.
Simulating Turbulence.
Three-Dimensional Texture And Animation.
Three-Dimensional Light Maps.

Anti-Aliasing And Texture Mapping.
Interactive Techniques In Texture Mapping.

9. Geometric Shadows.
Properties Of Shadows Used In Computer Graphics.
Simple Shadows On A Ground Plane.
Shadow Algorithms.
Shadow Algorithms: Projecting Polygons/Scan Line.
Shadow Algorithms- Shadow Volumes.
Shadow Algorithms. Derivation Of Shadow Polygons From Light Source Transformations.
Shadow Algorithms: Shadow Z-Buffer.

10. Global Illumination.
Global Illumination Models.
The Rendering Equation.
Radiance, Irradiance And The Radiance Equation.
Path Notation.

The Evolution Of Global Illumination Algorithms.
Established Algorithms - Ray Tracing And Radiosity.
Whitted Ray Tracing.

Monte Carlo Techniques In Global Illumination.
Path Tracing.
Distributed Raytrarcing.
Two-Pass Ray Tracing.
View Dependence/Independence And Multi-Pass Methods.
Caching Illumination.
Light Volumes.
Particle Tracing And Density Estimation.

11. The Radlosity Method.
Radiosity Theory.
Form Factor Determination.
The Gauss-Seidel Method.
Seeing A Partial Solution - Progressive Refinement.
Problems With The Radiosity Method.
Artefacts In Radiosity Images.
Hemicube Artefacts.
Reconstruction Artefacts.
Meshing Artefacts.

Meshing Strategies.
Adaptive Or A Posteriori Meshing.
A Priori Meshing.

12. Ray Tracing Strategies.
Introduction - Whitted Ray Tracing.
The Basic Algorithm.
Tracing Rays - Initial Considerations.
Lighting Model Components.
Hidden Surface Removal.

Using Recursion To Implement Ray Tracing.
The Adventures Of Seven Rays - A Ray Tracing Study.
Ray Tracing Polygon Objects - Interpolation Of A Normal At An Intersection Point In A Polygon.
Efficiency Measures In Ray Tracing.
Adaptive Depth Control.
First Hit Speed Up.
Bounding Objects With Simple Shapes.
Secondary Data Structures.
Ray Space Subdivision.

The Use Of Ray Coherence.
A Historical Digression - The Optics Of The Rainbow.

13. Volume Rendering.
Volume Rendering And The Visualization Of Volume Data.
'Semi-Transparent Gel' Option.
Voxel Classification.
Transforming Into The Viewing Direction.
Compositing Pixels Along A Way.

Semi-Transparent Gel Plus Surfaces.
Explicit Extraction Of Isosurfaces.

Structural Considerations In Volume Rendering Algorithms.
Ray Casting (Untransformed Data).
Ray Casting (Transformed Data).
Voxel Projection Method.

Perspective Projection In Volume Rendering.
Three-Dimensional Texture And Volume Rendering.

14. Anti-Aliasing Theory And Practice.
Aliases And Sampling.
Jagged Edges.
Sampling In Computer Graphics Compared With Sampling Reality.
Sampling And Reconstruction.
A Simple Comparison.
Pre-Filtering Methods.
Supersampling Or Post-Filtering.
Non-Uniform Sampling - Some Theoretical Concepts.
The Fourier Transform Of Images.

15. Colour And Computer Graphics.
Colour Sets In Computer Imagery.
Colour And Three-Dimensional Space.
Rgb Space.
The Hsv Single Hexcone Model.
Yiq Space.

Colour, Information And Perceptual Spaces.
Cie Xyz Space.
Cie Xyy Space.

Rendering And Colour Spaces.
Monitor Considerations.
Rgb Monitor Space And Other Monitor Considerations.
Monitor Considerations - Different Monitors And The Same Colour.
Monitor Considerations - Colour Gamut Mapping.
Monitor Considerations - Gamma Correction.

16. Image-Based Rendering And Photo-Modelling.
Reuse Of Previously Rendered Imagery - Two-Dimensional Techniques.
Planar Impostors Or Sprites.
Calculating The Validity Of Planar Impostors.

Varying Rendering Resources.
Priority Rendering.
Image Layering.

Using Depth Information.
Three-Dimensional Warping.
Layered Depth Images (Ldi).

View Interpolation.
View Morphing.

Four-Dimensional Techniques - The Lumigraph Or Light Field Rendering Approach.
Photo-Modelling And Br.
Image-Based Rendering Using Photographic Panoramas.
Compositing Panoramas.
Photo-Modelling For Image-Based Rendering.

17. Computer Animation.
A Categorization And Description Of Computer Animation Techniques.
Rigid Body Animation.
Interpolation Or Keyframing.
Explicit Scripting.
Interpolation Of Rotation.
Using Quaternions To Represent Rotation.
Interpolating Quaternions.
The Camera Is An Animated Objected.

Linked Structures And Hierarchical Motion.
Solving The Inverse Kinematics Problem.

Dynamics In Computer Animation.
Basic Theory For A Rigid Body - Particles.
The Nature Of Forces.
Rigid Bodies - Extended Masses.
Using Dynamics In Computer Animation.
Simulating The Dynamics Of A Lumped Mass.
Space-Time Constraints.

Collision Detection.
Broad Phase/Narrow Phase Algorithms.
Broad Phase Collision Detection With Obbs.
Narrow Phase: Pairs Of Convex Polyhedra - Exact Collision Detection.
Single Phase Algorithms - Object Hierarchies.

Collision Response.
Particle Animation.
Behavioral Animation.

18. Comparative Image Study.
Local Reflection Models.
Texture And Shadow Mapping.
Whitted Ray Tracing.

Index. 0201398559T04062001

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