Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, 2/e(精裝本)
John E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani, Jeffrey D. Ullman
- 出版商: Addison Wesley
- 出版日期: 2000-11-24
- 售價: $1,300
- 貴賓價: 9.8 折 $1,274
- 語言: 英文
- 頁數: 521
- 裝訂: Hardcover
- ISBN: 0201441241
- ISBN-13: 9780201441246
It has been more than 20 years since this classic book on formal languages, automata theory, and computational complexity was first published. With this long-awaited revision, the authors continue to present the theory in a concise and straightforward manner, now with an eye out for the practical applications. They have revised this book to make it more accessible to today's students, including the addition of more material on writing proofs, more figures and pictures to convey ideas, side-boxes to highlight other interesting material, and a less formal writing style. Exercises at the end of each chapter, including some new, easier exercises, help readers confirm and enhance their understanding of the material.
NEW! Completely rewritten to be less formal, providing more accessibility to today's students.
NEW! Increased usage of figures and pictures to help convey ideas.
NEW! More detail and intuition provided for definitions and proofs.
NEW! Provides special side-boxes to present supplemental material that may be of interest to readers.
NEW! Includes more exercises, including many at a lower level.
NEW! Presents program-like notation for PDA's and Turing machines.
NEW! Increased number of worked solutions and new programming exercises available online.
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Summary and References.)
1. Automata: The Methods and the Madness.
Automata and Complexity.
Introduction to Formal Proof.
Reduction to Definitions.
Other Theorem Forms.
Theorems That Appear Not to Be If-Then Statements.
Additional Forms of Proof.
Proof by Contradiction.
More General Forms of Integer Inductions.
The Central Concepts of Automata Theory
2. Finite Automata.
Enabling the Automata to Ignore Actions.
The Entire System as an Automaton.
Using the Product Automaton to Validate the Protocol.
Deterministic Finite Automata.
How a DFA Processes Strings.
Simpler Notations for DFA's.
Extending the Transition Function to Strings.
The Language of a DFA
Exercises for Section 2.2.
Nondeterministic Finite Automata.
Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata.
The Extended Transition Function.
The Language of an NFA.
Equivalence of Deterministic and Nondeterministic Finite Automata.
A Bad Case for the Subset Construction.
Exercises for Section 2.3.
An Application: Text Search.
Nondeterministic Finite Automata for Text Search.
A DFA to Recognize a Set of Keywords.
Exercises for Section 2.4.
Finite Automata with Epsilon-Transitions.
The Formal Notation for an e-NFA.
Extended Transitions and Languages for e-NFA's.
3. Regular Expressions and Languages.
Building Regular Expressions.
Precedence of Regular-Expression Operators.
Finite Automata and Regular Expressions.
Converting DFA's to Regular Expressions by Eliminating States.
Converting Regular Expressions to Automata.
Exercises for Section 3.2.
Applications of Regular Expressions.
Finding Patterns in Text.
Exercises for Section 3.3.
Algebraic Laws for Regular Expressions.
Identities and Annihilators.
The Idempotent Law.
Laws Involving Closures.
Discovering Laws for Regular Expressions.
The Test for a Regular-Expression Algebraic Law.
Exercises for Section 3.4.
4. Properties of Regular Languages.
Applications of the Pumping Lemma.
Exercises for Section 4.1.
Closure Properties of Regular Languages.
Exercises for Section 4.2.
Decision Properties of Regular Languages.
Testing Emptiness of Regular Languages.
Testing Membership in a Regular Language.
Exercises for Section 4.3.
Equivalence and Minimization of Automata.
Testing Equivalence of Regular Languages.
Minimization of DFA's.
Why the Minimized DFA Can't Be Beaten.
Exercises for Section 4.4.
5. Context-Free Grammars and Languages.
Definition of Context-Free Grammars.
Derivations Using a Grammar.
Leftmost and Rightmost Derivations.
The Language of a Grammar.
Exercises for Section 5.1.
The Yield of a Parse Tree.
Inference, Derivations, and Parse Trees.
From Inferences to Trees.
From Trees to Derivations.
From Derivations to Recursive Inferences.
Exercises for Section 5.2.
Applications of Context-Free Grammars.
The YACC Parser-Generator.
XML and Document-Type Definitions.
Exercises for Section 5.3.
Ambiguity in Grammars and Languages.
Removing Ambiguity From Grammars.
Leftmost Derivations as a Way to Express Ambiguity.
Exercises for Section 5.4.
6. Pushdown Automata.
The Formal Definition of Pushdown Automata.
A Graphical Notation for PDA's.
Instantaneous Descriptions of a PDA.
Exercises for Section 6.1.
The Languages of a PDA.
Acceptance by Empty Stack.
From Empty Stack to Final State.
From Final State to Empty Stack.
Exercises for Section 6.2.
Equivalence of PDA's and CFG's.
From PDA's to Grammars.
Exercises for Section 6.3.
Deterministic Pushdown Automata.
Regular Languages and Deterministic PDA's.
DPDA's and Context-Free Languages.
DPDA's and Ambiguous Grammars.
Exercises for Section 6.4.
7. Properties of Context-Free Languages.
Computing the Generating and Reachable Symbols.
Eliminating Unit Productions.
Chomsky Normal Form.
Exercises for Section 7.1.
The Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Languages.
Statement of the Pumping Lemma.
Applications of the Pumping Lemma for CFL's.
Exercises for Section 7.2.
Closure Properties of Context-Free Languages.
Applications of the Substitution Theorem.
Intersection With a Regular Language.
Exercises for Section 7.3.
Decision Properties of CFL's.
Running Time of Conversion to Chomsky Normal Form.
Testing Emptiness of CFL's.
Testing Membership in a CFL.
Preview of Undecidable CFL Problems.
Exercises for Section 7.4.
8.Introduction to Turing Machines.
The Hypothetical “Hello, World” Tester.
Reducing One Problem to Another.
Exercises for Section 8.1.
The Turing Machine.
Notation for the Turing Machine.
Instantaneous Descriptions for the Turing Machines.
Transition Diagrams for Turing Machines.
The Language of a Turing Machine.
Turing Machines and Halting.
Exercises for Section 8.2.
Programming Techniques for Turing Machines.
Exercises for Section 8.3.
Extensions to the Basic Turing-Machines.
Equivalence of One-Tape and Multitape TM's.
Running Time of the Many-Tapes-to-One Construction.
Nondeterministic Turing Machines.
Exercises for Section 8.4.
Restricted Turing Machine
The Power of Counter Machines.
Exercises for Section 8.5.
Turing Machines and Computers.
Simulating a Computer by a Turing Machine.
Comparing the Running Times of Computers and Turing Machines.
Codes for Turing Machines.
The Diagonalization Language.
Proof That Ld is Not Recursively Enumberable.
Exercises for Section 9.1.
An Undecidable Problem That is RE.
Complements of Recursive and RE Languages.
The Universal Language.
Undecidability of the Universal Language.
Exercises for Section 9.2.
Undecidable Problems About Turing Machines.
Turing Machines That Accept the Empty Language.
Rice's Theorem and Properties of the RE Languages.
Problems About Turing-Machine Specifications.
Exercises for Section 9.3.
Post's Correspondence Problem.
The “Modified” PCP.
Completion of the Proof of PCP Undecidability.
Exercises for Section 9.4.
Other Undecidable Problems.
Undecidability of Ambiguity for CFG's.
The Complement of a List Language.
Exercises for Section 9.5.
10. Intractable Problems.
An Example: Kruskal's Algorithm.
Nondeterministic Polynomial Time.
An $\cal NP$ Example: The Traveling Salesman Problem.
Exercises for Section 10.1
An NP-Complete Problem.
Representing SAT Instances.
NP-Completeness of the SAT Problem.
Exercises for Section 10.2.
A Restricted Satisfiability Problem.
Converting Expressions to CNF.
NP-Completeness of CSAT.
NP-Completeness of 3SAT.
Exercises for Section 10.3.
Additional NP-Complete Problems.
The Problem of Independent Sets.
The Node-Cover Problems.
The Directed Hamilton-Circuit Problem.
Undirected Hamilton Circuits and the TSP.
Summary of NP-Complete Problems.
Exercises for Section 10.4.
11. Additional Classes of Problems.
NP-Complete Problems and NP.
Exercises for Section 11.1.
Problems Solvable in Polynomial Space.
Relationship of PS and NPS to Previously Defined Classes.
Deterministic and Nondeterministic Polynomial Space.
A Problem That Is Complete for PS.
Quantified Boolean Formulas.
Evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas.
PS-Completeness of the QBF Problem.
Exercises for Section 11.3.
Language Classes Based on Randomized Algorithm.
A Turing-Machine Model Using randomization.
The Language of a Randomized Turing Machine.
The Class RP.
Recognizing Languages in RP.
The Class ZPP.
Relationship Between RP and ZPP.
Relationships to the Classes P and NP.
The Complexity of Primality Testing.
Introduction to Modular Arithmetic.
The Complexity of Modular-Arithmetic Computations.
Random-Polynomial Primality Testing.
Nondeterministic Primality Tests.
Exercises for Section 11.5.