Frame Relay: Technology and Practice (Hardcover)

Jeff T. Buckwalter

  • 出版商: Addison Wesley
  • 出版日期: 1999-12-23
  • 售價: $1,500
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,425
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 368
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0201485249
  • ISBN-13: 9780201485240

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Frame Relay: Technology and Practice is the most comprehensive, current, and practical handbook available for understanding and deploying frame relay. Gathering information from many different sources, this book provides essential facts and techniques in one convenient volume. It explains frame relay technology in understandable terms, interprets frame relay standards, and discusses vital deployment issues.

This book offers an overview of the benefits and limitations of frame relay and how it compares to other networking technologies. It contains a thorough description of frame relay technology, including architecture, interfaces, virtual circuits, and traffic management. In addition, the book describes the differences between the various carrier implementations and discusses real-world issues in design and management of frame relay networks, pricing, and procurement. The book also features several exercises, as well as numerous useful diagrams.

You will find coverage of the most current frame relay topics, including:

  • Voice over frame relay (VoFR)
  • Data-oriented virtual private networks (IP VPNs)
  • Frame relay-to-ATM integration
  • Quality of service (QoS) offerings from carriers and vendors
  • Switched virtual circuits (SVCs)
  • Virtual circuit network design
  • Recovery from virtual circuit failures
  • Capacity allocation and congestion management
  • Non-CIR versus flow-controlled approaches to frame relay networks

Especially useful for network managers considering migrating to frame relay or those expanding their use of public frame relay services, this book will help you make well-informed decisions about purchasing, designing, and deploying frame relay technology for high-speed, reliable, and cost-effective networks.


Table of Contents



1. Introduction.

Driving Forces for Frame Relay.

The Need for Frame Relay.

Accelerators for the Growth of Frame Relay.

Frame Relay Network Basics.

Benefits and Limitations of Frame Relay.


Frame Relay and Other Networking Technologies.

Dial-Up Modem Lines.

ISDN and Other Switched Digital Facilities.

Leased Lines.

X.25 Packet-Switching Services.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

Data-Oriented Virtual Private Networks.

Switched Multimegabit Data Service.

2. Who’s Who in Frame Relay.

Standards Organizations.

The American National Standards Institute.

The Frame Relay Forum.

The Internet Engineering Task Force.

Other Standards Organization.

Commercial Organizations.

Frame Relay Service Providers.

Frame Relay Vendors.

3. Frame Relay Architecture.

Frame Relay Layers.

Frame Relay and X.25 Packet Switching.

Network Interfaces.

User-Network Interface.

Network-to-Network Interface.

Local Management Interface.

Frame Relay Layer 2 Formats.

Frame Format.

Header Format.

Data Link Connection Identifiers.

How DLCIs Identify Visual Circuits.

Mapping DLCIs within a Network.

Globally Significant DLCIs.


4. Connecting to the Network.

Access Circuits.

Leased Access Circuits.

Local Frame Relay Services.

Dial-Up Access.

Physical Connections to the Access Circuit.

Physical Interfaces.

Data Service Units/Channel Service Units.

Port Connections.

Network-to-Network Interfaces.

Access Devices.

Routers for Frame Relay Networks.

Frame Relay Access Devices.

Other Interfaces for Frame Relay Access.

Recovery from Physical Circuit Failures.

Failure of the Access Circuits.

Failure of the Backbone Trunks.

5. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits.

Virtual Circuits.


Differences between PVCs and SVCs.

Permanent Virtual Circuits.

Switched Virtual Circuits.

More on SVCs.

SVC Signaling Specifications.

Advantages and Disadvantages of SVCs.

Switched Physical Access and SVCs.

Recovery from Virtual Circuit Failures.

6. Traffic Management.

Committed Information Rate.

The User View of CIR.

The Standards View of CIR.

Capacity Allocation.


Dynamic Allocation.

Oversubscription of Port Connections.

Asymmetric PVCs.

Congestion Management and Flow Control.

Frame Discarding and the Discard-Eligible Bit.

Explicit Congestion Notification Using the FECN and BECN Bits.

Implicit Congestion Notification.

Where Congestion Can Occur.

Congestion across the Local Access Circuit.

Congestion across the Provider’s Network.

Congestion across the Network-to-Network Interface.

Congestion across the Remote Access Circuit.

Limitations of Congestion Management.

Proprietary Implementations of CIR and the DE, FECN, and BECN Bits.

The Customer’s Inability to Respond to the FECN and BECN Bits.

Use and Misuse of the DE Bit.

7. Engineering of Frame Relay Networks.

Frame Relay Switch Families.

Public Service Provider Switches.

The Non-CIR Approach.

PVC Services and Bursting.

Capacity Planning.

Traffic Handling.

Congestion Management.


The Flow-Controlled Approach.

PVC Services.

Capacity Planning.

Traffic and Burst Handling.

Congestion Management.


Comparison of Non-CIR and Flow-Controlled Approaches.

Advantages of Non-CIR.

Advantages of Flow-Controlled Networks.

Second-Generation Frame Relay Switches.

Quality of Service Support.

Greater Speeds and Scalability.

Improved Traffic Routing.

The Zero CIR Controversy.

8. Network Management.

Network Management System Functions.

Management Data Sources.

Data from Switches.

Data from Routers.

Data from Protocol Analzyers.

Data from Enhanced DSU/CSUs.

Frame Relay Standards versus Proprietary Network Management Systems.

Frame Relay Standards in Network Management.

The Local Management Interface.

Consolidated Link Layer Management.

Review of the Simple Network Management Protocol.

The Management Information Base for Frame Relay Service.

Frame Relay Management Approaches.

User-Based Monitoring.

Carrier-Based Monitoring.

Managed Network Services.

Open Network Management Systems.

Frame Relay Network Management Functions.

Configuration Management.

Fault Management.

Performance Management.

Accounting Management.

Security Management.

Managed Network Services.

9. Frame Relay Pricing.

Pricing Structures.

PVC Pricing.

Access Circuit Charges.

Port Connection Charges.

Permanent Virtual Circuit Changes.

Variations in PVC Pricing.

SVC Pricing.

International Issues.

Ancillary Carrier Services.

10. Procurement of Frame Relay Services.

The RFP Process.


Evaluation Criteria.

The RFP.

Contract Negotiations.

Monitoring the Contract.

11. Design of Frame Relay Networks.


Physical Network Design.

Backbone Network Design.

Access Network Design.

Virtual Circuit Network Design.

The Access Network Design Process.

Set Objectives.

Inventory the Sites.

Collect Traffic Statistics.

Sketch the PVC Map.

Consider Asymmetric PVCs.

Determine CIR.

Determine Port Connection Speed.

Determine Access Circuit Speed.

Decide on Backup Options.

Plan for Implementation.

Implement and Fine-Tune.

Case Study: Redesigning a Private Line Network.

Solution 1: Star Topology Frame Relay Network.

Solution 2: Hybrid Frame Relay Network.

Solution 3: Partial Mesh Topology Frame Relay Network.

Other Design Issues.

Designing for Performance.

Designing for Switched Virtual Circuits.

Designing for Disaster Recovery.


12. Voice over Frame Relay.



Measuring Voice Quality.

Improving Voice Performance.

Voice Compression.

Silence Suppression.

Voice-Engineering Techniques.

Small Voice Frames.

Fragmentation of Data Frames.

Priority of Voice Frames.

QoS in the Frame Relay Network.

Fax over Frame Relay.

Voice-Band Modem Data over Frame Relay.

Video over Frame Relay.


Performance and Quality Issues.

Technical Issues.

Management and Administrative Issues.

Perception Issues.


FRF.11 Voice over Frame Relay Implementation Agreement.

FRF.12 Frame Relay Fragmentation Implementation Agreement.

13. Internetworking with Frame Relay.

Routing over Frame Relay Networks.

Routing Protocols.

Improved Routing Protocols.

Frame Relay Interfaces for Routers.

TCP and Congestion Control.

Routers and Congestion.

Prioritizing Traffic within Routers.

Effects of Frame Relay on Router Interconnectivity.

RFC 1490/2427 Multiprotocol Encapsulation.

RFC 1490 Encapsulation Formats.

Address Resolution with RFC 1490.

Encapsulation of X.25.

RFC 1490 Misunderstandings.

Routable Protocols over Frame Relay.

TCP/IP over Frame Relay.

IPX over Frame Relay.

IBM’s SNA over Frame Relay.

SNA Background.

SNA over Frame Relay.

IBM Hardware/Software Support for Frame Relay.

SNA Gateways.

Router-Based RFC 1490 Multiprotocol Encapsulation.

Data Link Switching.

Sending SNA over Frame Relay.

Nonroutable Protocols over Frame Relay.

14. Frame Relay and ATM.


Network Interworking.

Service Interworking.

The ATM Frame User-Network Interface.

Migration Path.


Appendix A - Frame Relay Information Sources.

Web Sites.

Internet Newsgroups (Usenet).


Magazines (monthly).

Periodicals (weekly).

Newsletters, Mailing Lists.

Frame Relay Vendors and Carriers.

Appendix B - Answers to Exercises.

Chapter 3 Exercises.

Chapter 11 Exercises.