Calculating a Natural World: Scientists, Engineers, and Computers During the Rise of U.S. Cold War Research (Hardcover)

Atsushi Akera

  • 出版商: The MIT Press
  • 出版日期: 2006-11-01
  • 定價: $1,240
  • 售價: 3.2$399
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 408
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0262012316
  • ISBN-13: 9780262012317

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During the Cold War, the field of computing advanced rapidly within a complex institutional context. In Calculating a Natural World, Atsushi Akera describes the complicated interplay of academic, commercial, and government and military interests that produced a burst of scientific discovery and technological innovation in 1940s and 1950s America. This was the era of big machines--the computers that made the reputations of IBM and of many academic laboratories--and Akera uses the computer as a historical window on the emerging infrastructure of American scientific and engineering research. The military-industrial complex is often spoken of as a coherent and unified power, but Akera argues that it was the tensions as much as the convergences among military, business, and academic forces that fueled scientific and technological advances.

Akera's study is unique in its integration of a history of postwar computing--usually told in terms of either business or hardware--and a mapping of an "ecology of knowledge" represented by the emerging institutional infrastructure for computing. For example, Akera sees John Mauchly's early work on computers as a product of his peripatetic career--his journey through different institutional ecologies--and John von Neumann's work as emerging from the convergence of physics and applied mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study. Akera also looks at the ways in which the institutional contexts of the National Bureau of Standards and MIT's Project Whirlwind pulled research in diverging directions, and he examines IBM's dominance from the perspectives of both business and users. Finally, Akera compares the academic computing centers at MIT and the University of Michigan, tracing the tensions on those campuses over whether computers were a service facility, a commercial technology, or a subject of research.

Atsushi Akera is Assistant Professor in the Department of Science and Technology Studies at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 


 

Table of Contents

 Preface vii
 
 Introduction 1
 
1. An Ecology of Knowledge
Technical and Institutional Developments in Computing, 1900-1945 25
 
2. Biography and the Circulation of Knowledge
John Mauchly and the Origins of Electronic Computing 67
 
3. From Ecology to Network
John von Neumann and Postwar Negotiations over Computer-Development Research 107
 
4. Knowledge and Organization
Redefining Computer-Development Research at the National Bureau of Standards 151
 
5. Research and Rhetoric
Jay Forrester and Federal Sponsorship of Academic Research 181
 
6. Institutions and Border Crossings
Cuthbert Hurd and His Applied Science Field Men 223
 
7. Voluntarism and Occupational Identity
The IBM Users’ Group, Share 249
 
8. Research and Education
The Academic Computing Centers at MIT and the University of Michigan 277
 
9. Discipline and Service
Research on Computer Time Sharing at MIT and the University of Michigan 313
 
 Conclusion 337
 
 Notes 351
 
 References 399
 
 Series List 413
 
 Index 417