Change of State: Information, Policy, and Power (Hardcover)

Sandra Braman

  • 出版商: The MIT Press
  • 出版日期: 2007-02-01
  • 定價: $1,180
  • 售價: 6.0$708
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 569
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0262025973
  • ISBN-13: 9780262025973

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Description

As the informational state replaces the bureaucratic welfare state, control over information creation, processing, flows, and use has become the most effective form of power. In Change of State Sandra Braman examines the theoretical and practical ramifications of this "change of state." She looks at the ways in which governments are deliberate, explicit, and consistent in their use of information policy to exercise power, exploring not only such familiar topics as intellectual property rights and privacy but also areas in which policy is highly effective but little understood. Such lesser-known issues include hybrid citizenship, the use of "functionally equivalent borders" internally to allow exceptions to U.S. law, research funding, census methods, and network interconnection. Trends in information policy, argues Braman, both manifest and trigger change in the nature of governance itself.

After laying the theoretical, conceptual, and historical foundations for understanding the informational state, Braman examines 20 information policy principles found in the U.S Constitution. She then explores the effects of U.S. information policy on the identity, structure, borders, and change processes of the state itself and on the individuals, communities, and organizations that make up the state. Looking across the breadth of the legal system, she presents current law as well as trends in and consequences of several information policy issues in each category affected.

Change of State introduces information policy on two levels, coupling discussions of specific contemporary problems with more abstract analysis drawing on social theory and empirical research as well as law. Most important, the book provides a way of understanding how information policy brings about the fundamental social changes that come with the transformation to the informational state.

Sandra Braman is Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She is the editor of Communication Researchers and Policy-Making (MIT Press, 2003).

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables xv
 
 Preface xvii
 
 Note on Text xix
 
 Acknowledgments xxi
 
1. An Introduction to Information Policy 1
 
2. Forms and Phases of Power
The Bias of the Informational State 9
 
 Information 9
 
 Theoretical Pluralism 10
 
 A Taxonomy of Definitions 11
 
 Using the Taxonomy 20
 
 Power 23
 
 The Problematics of Power 24
 
 Forms of Power 25
 
 Phases of Power 27
 
 The State 28
 
 Problematics of the State 29
 
 The Nation 30
 
 The State 32
 
 A Typology of States by Form of Power 35
 
 Information Policy for the Informational State 37
 
3. Bounding the Domain
Information Policy for the Twenty-First Century 39
 
 The Definitional Problem 40
 
 History 41
 
 Premodern Information Policy 42
 
 Early Modern Information Policy 44
 
 Modern Information Policy 45
 
 The Contemporary Environment 48
 
 International Information Policy 54
 
 Confounding Factors 56
 
 Technology-Based Problems 56
 
 Practice-Based Problems 61
 
 Policy Process-Based Problems 62
 
 Issue Area-Based Problems 66
 
 Definitional Approaches 67
 
 Lists 67
 
 Legacy Legal Categories 68
 
 Industries 68
 
 Social Impact 69
 
 The Information Production Chain 69
 
 Bounding the Domain of Information Policy
An Analytical Approach 73
 
 Step 1. The Policy Issue and the Information Production Chain 74
 
 Step 2. Link Analytically to Related Information Policy Issues 75
 
 Step 3. Examine the Social Impact of Current Policy 76
 
 Step 4. Develop Policy Recommendations 77
 
 Step 5. Translate Recommendations into the Terms of Legacy Law 77
 
 Information Policy: Constitutive and Constitutional 77
 
4. Constitutional Principles and the Information Spaces They Create 79
 
 The Principles 81
 
 Principles in the Constitution 81
 
 The First Amendment 85
 
 Other Constitutional Amendments 87
 
 The Penumbra of the Constitution 89
 
 Constitutional Information Spaces 89
 
 Public versus Private 90
 
 Spaces Defined by Medium 96
 
 The Spaces of Expression 99
 
 The Spaces of Content 105
 
 The Spaces of Content Production 111
 
 Spaces Defined by Audience 113
 
 Spaces Defined by War and Peace 114
 
 Constitutional Principles and Their Limits 115
 
5. Information Policy and Identity 117
 
 Identity Theory 117
 
 Individual Identity 121
 
 Libel 121
 
 Privacy 126
 
 Identity of the Informational State 138
 
 The Census and Other Statistics 138
 
 Mapping 144
 
 Official Memory 148
 
 Mediating the Identities of the Individual and the Informational State 155
 
 Citizenship 155
 
 Language 160
 
 Education 162
 
 Mutually Constituted Identities of the Individual and the Informational State 166
 
6. Information Policy and Structure 167
 
 Theories of Structure 167
 
 Information Policy and Social Structure 173
 
 Antitrust 173
 
 Copyright 177
 
 Patents 187
 
 Association 191
 
 Information Policy and Technological Structure 193
 
 Interconnection 193
 
 Participatory Design 197
 
 Universal Service 199
 
 Information Policy and Informational Structure 205
 
 Access to Government Information 205
 
 Accounting Systems 208
 
 Metadata 215
 
 Information Policy and New Structural Formations 219
 
7. Information Policy and Borders 221
 
 Border Theory 221
 
 Borders of Social Systems 227
 
 Geopolitical Borders 228
 
 Trade in Services 234
 
 Borders of the Technological System 239
 
 Network Borders 240
 
 Export Controls 244
 
 Informational Borders 248
 
 Political Speech 248
 
 Arms Control Treaties 250
 
 Importing Knowledge Workers 254
 
 Border Rhetoric versus Border Realities 255
 
8. Information Policy and Change 259
 
 Theories of Change 259
 
 Information Policy and Change in Social Systems 264
 
 Freedom of Speech versus National Security 265
 
 The Vote 274
 
 Information Policy and Change in Technological Systems 278
 
 Direct Funding of Research 281
 
 Tax Credits 287
 
 Procurement 288
 
 Information Policy and Change in Information Systems 293
 
 The Arts 293
 
 Government Dissemination of Information 302
 
 Ambivalence and Inconsistency 310
 
9. Information, Policy, and Power in the Informational State 313
 
 The Social Impact of Information Policy Trends 314
 
 The Current Status of Constitutional Information Policy Principles 321
 
 The Nature of Information Policy 324
 
 Policy and Social Theory 326
 
 The Future of the Informational State 327
 
 Bibliographic Essays 329
 
 Notes 329
 
 1 An Introduction to Information Policy 329
 
 2 Forms and Phases of Power: The Bias of the Informational State 335
 
 3 Bounding the Domain: Information Policy for the Twenty-first Century 346
 
 4 Constitutional Principles and the Information Spaces They Create 349
 
 5 Information Policy and Identity 352
 
 6 Information Policy and Structure 369
 
 7 Information Policy and Borders 394
 
 8 Information Policy and Change 405
 
 References 419
 
 Index 525