Change of State: Information, Policy, and Power (Hardcover)

Sandra Braman

  • 出版商: MIT
  • 出版日期: 2007-02-01
  • 定價: $1,180
  • 售價: 2.5$299
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 569
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0262025973
  • ISBN-13: 9780262025973
  • 立即出貨(限量) (庫存=1)




As the informational state replaces the bureaucratic welfare state, control over information creation, processing, flows, and use has become the most effective form of power. In Change of State Sandra Braman examines the theoretical and practical ramifications of this "change of state." She looks at the ways in which governments are deliberate, explicit, and consistent in their use of information policy to exercise power, exploring not only such familiar topics as intellectual property rights and privacy but also areas in which policy is highly effective but little understood. Such lesser-known issues include hybrid citizenship, the use of "functionally equivalent borders" internally to allow exceptions to U.S. law, research funding, census methods, and network interconnection. Trends in information policy, argues Braman, both manifest and trigger change in the nature of governance itself.

After laying the theoretical, conceptual, and historical foundations for understanding the informational state, Braman examines 20 information policy principles found in the U.S Constitution. She then explores the effects of U.S. information policy on the identity, structure, borders, and change processes of the state itself and on the individuals, communities, and organizations that make up the state. Looking across the breadth of the legal system, she presents current law as well as trends in and consequences of several information policy issues in each category affected.

Change of State introduces information policy on two levels, coupling discussions of specific contemporary problems with more abstract analysis drawing on social theory and empirical research as well as law. Most important, the book provides a way of understanding how information policy brings about the fundamental social changes that come with the transformation to the informational state.

Sandra Braman is Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She is the editor of Communication Researchers and Policy-Making (MIT Press, 2003).


Table of Contents

List of Tables xv
 Preface xvii
 Note on Text xix
 Acknowledgments xxi
1. An Introduction to Information Policy 1
2. Forms and Phases of Power
The Bias of the Informational State 9
 Information 9
 Theoretical Pluralism 10
 A Taxonomy of Definitions 11
 Using the Taxonomy 20
 Power 23
 The Problematics of Power 24
 Forms of Power 25
 Phases of Power 27
 The State 28
 Problematics of the State 29
 The Nation 30
 The State 32
 A Typology of States by Form of Power 35
 Information Policy for the Informational State 37
3. Bounding the Domain
Information Policy for the Twenty-First Century 39
 The Definitional Problem 40
 History 41
 Premodern Information Policy 42
 Early Modern Information Policy 44
 Modern Information Policy 45
 The Contemporary Environment 48
 International Information Policy 54
 Confounding Factors 56
 Technology-Based Problems 56
 Practice-Based Problems 61
 Policy Process-Based Problems 62
 Issue Area-Based Problems 66
 Definitional Approaches 67
 Lists 67
 Legacy Legal Categories 68
 Industries 68
 Social Impact 69
 The Information Production Chain 69
 Bounding the Domain of Information Policy
An Analytical Approach 73
 Step 1. The Policy Issue and the Information Production Chain 74
 Step 2. Link Analytically to Related Information Policy Issues 75
 Step 3. Examine the Social Impact of Current Policy 76
 Step 4. Develop Policy Recommendations 77
 Step 5. Translate Recommendations into the Terms of Legacy Law 77
 Information Policy: Constitutive and Constitutional 77
4. Constitutional Principles and the Information Spaces They Create 79
 The Principles 81
 Principles in the Constitution 81
 The First Amendment 85
 Other Constitutional Amendments 87
 The Penumbra of the Constitution 89
 Constitutional Information Spaces 89
 Public versus Private 90
 Spaces Defined by Medium 96
 The Spaces of Expression 99
 The Spaces of Content 105
 The Spaces of Content Production 111
 Spaces Defined by Audience 113
 Spaces Defined by War and Peace 114
 Constitutional Principles and Their Limits 115
5. Information Policy and Identity 117
 Identity Theory 117
 Individual Identity 121
 Libel 121
 Privacy 126
 Identity of the Informational State 138
 The Census and Other Statistics 138
 Mapping 144
 Official Memory 148
 Mediating the Identities of the Individual and the Informational State 155
 Citizenship 155
 Language 160
 Education 162
 Mutually Constituted Identities of the Individual and the Informational State 166
6. Information Policy and Structure 167
 Theories of Structure 167
 Information Policy and Social Structure 173
 Antitrust 173
 Copyright 177
 Patents 187
 Association 191
 Information Policy and Technological Structure 193
 Interconnection 193
 Participatory Design 197
 Universal Service 199
 Information Policy and Informational Structure 205
 Access to Government Information 205
 Accounting Systems 208
 Metadata 215
 Information Policy and New Structural Formations 219
7. Information Policy and Borders 221
 Border Theory 221
 Borders of Social Systems 227
 Geopolitical Borders 228
 Trade in Services 234
 Borders of the Technological System 239
 Network Borders 240
 Export Controls 244
 Informational Borders 248
 Political Speech 248
 Arms Control Treaties 250
 Importing Knowledge Workers 254
 Border Rhetoric versus Border Realities 255
8. Information Policy and Change 259
 Theories of Change 259
 Information Policy and Change in Social Systems 264
 Freedom of Speech versus National Security 265
 The Vote 274
 Information Policy and Change in Technological Systems 278
 Direct Funding of Research 281
 Tax Credits 287
 Procurement 288
 Information Policy and Change in Information Systems 293
 The Arts 293
 Government Dissemination of Information 302
 Ambivalence and Inconsistency 310
9. Information, Policy, and Power in the Informational State 313
 The Social Impact of Information Policy Trends 314
 The Current Status of Constitutional Information Policy Principles 321
 The Nature of Information Policy 324
 Policy and Social Theory 326
 The Future of the Informational State 327
 Bibliographic Essays 329
 Notes 329
 1 An Introduction to Information Policy 329
 2 Forms and Phases of Power: The Bias of the Informational State 335
 3 Bounding the Domain: Information Policy for the Twenty-first Century 346
 4 Constitutional Principles and the Information Spaces They Create 349
 5 Information Policy and Identity 352
 6 Information Policy and Structure 369
 7 Information Policy and Borders 394
 8 Information Policy and Change 405
 References 419
 Index 525