Computer Models of Musical Creativity (Hardcover)

David Cope

  • 出版商: MIT
  • 出版日期: 2005-12-16
  • 售價: $1,350
  • 貴賓價: 9.8$1,323
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 474
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0262033380
  • ISBN-13: 9780262033381
  • 相關分類: 人工智慧
  • 立即出貨(限量) (庫存=2)




In this original and provocative study of computational creativity in music, David Cope asks whether computer programs can effectively model creativity -- and whether computer programs themselves can create. Defining musical creativity, and distinguishing it from creativity in other arts, Cope presents a series of experimental models that illustrate salient features of musical creativity. He makes the case that musical creativity results from a process that he calls inductive association, and he contends that such a computational process can in fact produce music creatively. Drawing on the work of many other scholars and musicians -- including Douglas Hofstadter, Margaret Boden, Selmer Bringsjord, and Kathleen Lennon -- Cope departs from the views expressed by most with his contentions that computer programs can create and that those who do not believe this have probably defined creativity so narrowly that even humans could not be said to create.

After examining the foundations of creativity and musical creativity, Cope describes a number of possible models for computationally imitating human creativity in music. He discusses such issues as recombinance and pattern matching, allusions, learning, inference, analogy, musical hierarchy, and influence, and finds that these experimental models solve only selected aspects of creativity. He then describes a model that integrates these different aspects -- an inductive-association computational process that can create music. Cope's writing style is lively and nontechnical; the reader needs neither knowledge of computer programming nor specialized computer hardware or software to follow the text.

The computer programs discussed in the text, along with MP3 versions of all the musical examples, are available at the author's website,, by clicking on the link to the left.

David Cope is a composer and Professor of Music at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is the author of Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style (MIT Press, 2004).

Table of Contents:

 Sample Chapter - Download PDF (40 KB)
I Background and Principles 1
1 Definitions
 Sample Chapter - Download PDF (440 KB)
2 Background 35
3 Current Models of Musical Creativity 51
II Experimental Models of Musical Creativity 85
4 Recombinance 87
5 Allusion 125
6 Learning, Inference, and Analogy 177
7 Form and Structure 221
8 Influence 251
III An Integrated Model of Musical Creativity 269
9 Association 271
10 Musical Association 299
11 Integration 325
12 Aesthetics 345
 Sample Chapter - Download PDF (56 KB)
Appendix A: Experiments In Musical Intelligence Final Work List 385
Appendix B: Database Format 391
Appendix C: Ark Endings 393
Appendix D: Listing of Book Programs 397
Appendix E: Virtual Beethoven Symphony No. 10, Second Movement 399
 Sample Chapter - Download PDF (59 KB)



在這本關於音樂中計算創造力的原創且具有挑釁性的研究中,大衛·科普(David Cope)問道,計算機程序是否能有效地模擬創造力,以及計算機程序本身是否能創造。科普對音樂創造力進行了定義,並將其與其他藝術形式的創造力區分開來,提出了一系列實驗模型,以展示音樂創造力的顯著特徵。他認為音樂創造力是一個他稱之為歸納聯想的過程,並主張這樣的計算過程實際上能夠創造音樂。科普借鑒了許多其他學者和音樂家的工作,包括道格拉斯·霍夫斯塔德特(Douglas Hofstadter)、瑪格麗特·博登(Margaret Boden)、塞爾默·布林斯喬德(Selmer Bringsjord)和凱瑟琳·列儂(Kathleen Lennon),他與大多數人的觀點不同,認為計算機程序能夠創造,而那些不相信這一點的人可能將創造力定義得太狹窄,以至於連人類也無法說是在創造。



大衛·科普是一位作曲家,也是加州大學聖塔克魯茲分校的音樂教授。他是《虛擬音樂:計算機合成音樂風格》(MIT Press,2004年)的作者。