Software Abstractions: Logic, Language, and Analysis (Paperback)

Daniel Jackson

  • 出版商: MIT
  • 出版日期: 2006-03-24
  • 定價: $1,640
  • 售價: 1.8$299
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 366
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0262101149
  • ISBN-13: 9780262101141

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Description

In Software Abstractions Daniel Jackson introduces a new approach to software design that draws on traditional formal methods but exploits automated tools to find flaws as early as possible. This approach--which Jackson calls "lightweight formal methods" or "agile modeling"--takes from formal specification the idea of a precise and expressive notation based on a tiny core of simple and robust concepts but replaces conventional analysis based on theorem proving with a fully automated analysis that gives designers immediate feedback. Jackson has developed Alloy, a language that captures the essence of software abstractions simply and succinctly, using a minimal toolkit of mathematical notions. The designer can use automated analysis not only to correct errors but also to make models that are more precise and elegant. This approach, Jackson says, can rescue designers from "the tarpit of implementation technologies" and return them to thinking deeply about underlying concepts.

Software Abstractions introduces the key elements of the approach: a logic, which provides the building blocks of the language; a language, which adds a small amount of syntax to the logic for structuring descriptions; and an analysis, a form of constraint solving that offers both simulation (generating sample states and executions) and checking (finding counterexamples to claimed properties). The book uses Alloy as a vehicle because of its simplicity and tool support, but the book's lessons are mostly language-independent, and could also be applied in the context of other modeling languages.

Daniel Jackson is Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and leads the Software Design Group at the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.

 

Table of Contents

Preface
 
 Acknowledgments xv
 
1 Introduction
 
2 A Whirlwind Tour
 
      2.1 Statics: Exploring States 
 
      2.2 Dynamics: Adding Operations 
 
      2.3 Classification Hierarchy 
 
      2.4 Execution Traces 
 
      2.5 Summary 
 
3 Logic 33
 
      3.1 Three Logics in One 
 
      3.2 Atoms and Relations 
 
      3.3 Snapshots 
 
      3.4 Operators 
 
      3.5 Constraints 
 
      3.6 Declarations and Multiplicity Constraints 
 
      3.7 Cardinality Constraints 
 
4 Language 83
 
      4.1 An Example: Self-Grandpas 
 
      4.2 Signatures and Fields 
 
      4.3 Model Diagrams 
 
      4.4 Types and Type Checking 
 
      4.5 Facts, Predicates, Functions, and Assertions 
 
      4.6 Commands and Scope 
 
      4.7 Modules and Polymorphism 
 
      4.8 Integers and Arithmetic 
 
5 Analysis  139
 
      5.1 Scope-Complete Analysis 
 
      5.2 Instances, Examples, and Counterexamples 
 
      5.3 Unbounded Universal Quantifiers 
 
      5.4 Scope Selection and Monotonicity 
 
6 Examples  169
 
      6.1 Leader Election in a Ring 
 
      6.2 Hotel Room Locking 
 
      6.3 Media Asset Management 
 
      6.4 Memory Abstractions 
 
 Appendix A: Exercises 229
 
      A.1 Logic Exercises 
 
      A.2 Extending Simple Models 
 
      A.3 Classic Puzzles 
 
      A.4 Metamodels 
 
      A.5 Small Case Studies 
 
      A.6 Open-Ended Case Studies 
 
 Appendix B: Alloy Language Reference  253
 
      B.1 Lexical Issues 
 
      B.2 Namespaces 
 
      B.3 Grammar 
 
      B.4 Precedence and Associativity 
 
      B.5 Semantic Basis 
 
      B.6 Types and Overloading 
 
      B.7 Language Features 
 
 Appendix C: Kernel Semantics  291
 
      C.1 Semantics of the Alloy Kernel 
 
      C.2 Semantics of Integer Expressions and Formulas 
 
 Appendix D: Diagrammatic Notation  295
 
 Appendix E: Alternative Approaches  297
 
      E.1 An Example 
 
      E.2 B 
 
      E.3 OCL 
 
      E.4 VDM 
 
      E.5 Z 
 
 References
 
 Index