The Body and the Screen: Theories of Internet Spectatorship (Hardcover)

Michele White

  • 出版商: MIT
  • 出版日期: 2006-06-09
  • 定價: $1,090
  • 售價: 1.8$199
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 280
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0262232499
  • ISBN-13: 9780262232494
  • 相關分類: 資訊科學Information-management
  • 立即出貨(限量) (庫存=1)




Internet and computer users are often represented onscreen as active and empowered--as in AOL's striding yellow figure and the interface hand that appears to manipulate software and hypertext links. In The Body and the Screen Michele White suggests that users can more properly be understood as spectators rendered and regulated by technologies and representations, for whom looking and the mediation of the screen are significant aspects of engagement. Drawing on apparatus and feminist psychoanalytic film theories, art history, gender studies, queer theory, critical race and postcolonial studies, and other theories of cultural production, White conceptualizes Internet and computer spectatorship and provides theoretical models that can be employed in other analyses. She offers case studies and close visual and textual analysis of the construction of spectatorship in different settings.

White shows that despite the onscreen promise of empowerment and coherence (through depictions of materiality that structure the experience), fragmentation and confusion are constant aspects of Internet spectatorship. She analyzes spectatorship in multi-user object-oriented settings (MOOs) by examining the textual process of looking and gazing, contrasts the experiences of the women's webcam spectator and operator, describes intentional technological failures in net art, and considers ways in which traditional conceptions of artistry, authorship, and production techniques persist in Internet and computer settings (as seen in the creation of virtual environment avatars and in digital imaging art). Finally, she analyzes the physical and psychic pain described by male programmers in Internet forums as another counternarrative to the common tale of the empowered user. Spectatorship, White argues, not only affects the way specific interfaces are understood but also helps shape larger conceptions of self and society.


Table of Contents

 List of Illustrations ix
 The Body, the Screen, and Representations: An Introduction to Theories of Internet Spectatorship  1
1. Making Internet and Computer Spectators 17
 Rendering Liveness, Materiality, and Space 
 Notions of the Empowered User 
 Addressing the Spectator 
 Stabilizing Identity 
 Erasing the Interface 
 Conclusion: Active Users by Design 
2. Visual Pleasure through Textual Passages: Gazing in Multi-user Object-oriented Settings (MOOs) 35
 The Look and the Gaze 
 Character Creation and Attributes in MOOs 
 The Look and the Gaze in MOOs 
 Gendered Gazing in MOOs 
 Graphical MOOs 
 Conclusion: Between Multiple and Coherent Identity 
3. Too Close to See, Too Intimate a Screen: Men, Women, and Webcams 57
 Feminism and Spectatorship 
 Critical and Journalistic Considerations of Webcams 
 Women and Webcams 
 Regulating the Spectator 
 Women Webcam Operators and Authority 
 Visibility and Webcams 
 Making Texts Real 
 Some Problems with Webcam Viewing 
 Just a Guy 
 Conclusion: The Politics of Being Seen 
4. The Aesthetic of Failure: Confusing Spectators with Net Art Gone Wrong 85
 Aesthetics and Net Art 
 Net Art 
 An Aesthetic of Failure 
 Peter Luining 
 Michaël Samyn 
 Conclusion: The Limits of Failure and Repetition 
5. Can You Read Me? Setting-specific Meaning in Virtual Places (VP) 115
 Virtual Places 
 Painters and Avatar Galleries 
 Owning Texts 
 Criteria for Originality 
 Theories of Internet Authorship 
 Gender, Race, Sexuality, and the Avatar 
 Making Differences in Virtual Places 
 Conclusion: Authorship in Other Internet Settings 
6. This Is Not Photography, This Is Not a Cohesive View: Computer-facilitated Imaging and Fragmented Spectatorship 147
 Making the Digital Imaging Spectator 
 Digital or Post-photography 
 The Scanner as Camera 
 Carol Selter's Animalia and Punctum 
 Susan Silton's Self Portraits and Images of the Partial Self 
 Ken Gonzales-Day's Skin Series and the Cut 
 The New Media Grid 
 Conclusion: The Morphed Spectator 
The Flat and the Fold: A Consideration of Embodied Spectatorship  177
 Carol Selter, Susan Silton, Ken Gonzales-Day, and the Fold 
 The Body Folded and Evacuated 
 Hierarchy and Control 
 The Spectator in Pain 
 The Fat and the Fold 
 Men and the Weight Loss "Challenge" 
 Erotic Folding 
 Conclusion: A Technology of Waste 
 Acknowledgments  199
 Notes 205
 Selected Bibliography 273
 Index  297



互聯網和電腦使用者通常在屏幕上被呈現為活躍和有權力的形象,例如AOL的黃色行走人物和出現在軟件和超文本鏈接中的界面手。在《身體和屏幕》一書中,米歇爾·懷特(Michele White)提出,使用者更應該被理解為由技術和表徵所呈現和規範的觀眾,對於他們來說,觀看和屏幕的媒介是參與的重要方面。懷特借鑒了裝置和女性主義精神分析電影理論、藝術史、性別研究、酷兒理論、批判種族和後殖民研究以及其他文化生產理論,概念化了互聯網和電腦的觀眾性,並提供了可以應用於其他分析的理論模型。她提供了案例研究和對不同場景中觀眾性建構的近距離視覺和文本分析。

懷特指出,儘管屏幕上承諾的權力和連貫性(通過結構化體驗的物質性描繪) ,但碎片化和混亂是互聯網觀眾性的不變方面。她通過研究多用戶面向對象(MOOs)中的觀眾性,分析了觀看和凝視的文本過程,對比了女性網絡攝像機觀眾和操作者的經歷,描述了網絡藝術中有意的技術故障,並考慮了在互聯網和電腦環境中傳統藝術、作者和生產技術觀念的持續存在(如虛擬環境化身的創建和數字影像藝術)。最後,她分析了男性程序員在互聯網論壇中描述的身體和心理痛苦,作為對強大使用者的普遍敘事的另一種反叙事。懷特主張,觀眾性不僅影響對特定界面的理解方式,還有助於塑造更大的自我和社會觀念。