Imitation of Life: How Biology Is Inspiring Computing

Nancy Forbes

  • 出版商: MIT
  • 出版日期: 2005-09-23
  • 售價: $520
  • 貴賓價: 9.8$510
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 190
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 0262562154
  • ISBN-13: 9780262562157
  • 相關分類: 人工智慧生物資訊 Bioinformatics
  • 立即出貨




As computers and the tasks they perform become increasingly complex, researchers are looking to nature -- as model and as metaphor -- for inspiration. The organization and behavior of biological organisms present scientists with an invitation to reinvent computing for the complex tasks of the future. In Imitation of Life, Nancy Forbes surveys the emerging field of biologically inspired computing, looking at some of the most impressive and influential examples of this fertile synergy.

Forbes points out that the influence of biology on computing goes back to the early days of computer science -- John von Neumann, the architect of the first digital computer, used the human brain as the model for his design. Inspired by von Neumann and other early visionaries, as well as by her work on the "Ultrascale Computing" project at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Forbes describes the exciting potential of these revolutionary new technologies. She identifies three strains of biologically inspired computing: the use of biology as a metaphor or inspiration for the development of algorithms; the construction of information processing systems that use biological materials or are modeled on biological processes, or both; and the effort to understand how biological organisms "compute," or process information.

Forbes then shows us how current researchers are using these approaches. In successive chapters, she looks at artificial neural networks; evolutionary and genetic algorithms, which search for the "fittest" among a generation of solutions; cellular automata; artificial life -- not just a simulation, but "alive" in the internal ecosystem of the computer; DNA computation, which uses the encoding capability of DNA to devise algorithms; self-assembly and its potential use in nanotechnology; amorphous computing, modeled on the kind of cooperation seen in a colony of cells or a swarm of bees; computer immune systems; bio-hardware and how bioelectronics compares to silicon; and the "computational" properties of cells.

Nancy Forbes works as a science and technology analyst for the federal government. She has advanced degrees both in physics and the humanities, and has served as a contributing editor for The Industrial Physicist and Computing in Science and Engineering.



Table of Contents:

Preface ix
1 Artificial Neural Networks 1
2 Evolutionary Algorithms 13
3 Cellular Automata 25
4 Artificial Life 37
5 DNA Computation 51
6 Biomolecular Self-Assembly 67
7 Amorphous Computing 83
8 Computer Immune Systems 97
9 Biologically Inspired Hardware 113
10 Biology through the Lens of Computer Science 139
Epilogue 155
Notes 159


隨著電腦和它們執行的任務變得越來越複雜,研究人員正在尋找自然界的靈感和隱喻,作為模型和啟發來源。生物組織的組織和行為為科學家提供了重新發明未來複雜任務的計算的邀請。在《模仿生命》一書中,南希·福布斯(Nancy Forbes)調查了生物啟發計算的新興領域,並探討了一些最令人印象深刻和有影響力的例子。

福布斯指出,生物對計算的影響可以追溯到計算機科學的早期 - 約翰·馮·諾伊曼(John von Neumann),第一台數字計算機的設計師,將人腦作為他的設計模型。受到馮·諾伊曼和其他早期先驅的啟發,以及她在國防高級研究計劃局(DARPA)的“超大規模計算”項目上的工作,福布斯描述了這些革命性新技術的激動人心的潛力。她確定了三種生物啟發計算的方法:將生物作為算法開發的隱喻或靈感;構建使用生物材料或模仿生物過程的信息處理系統,或兩者兼而有之;以及努力理解生物組織如何“計算”或處理信息。

然後,福布斯向我們展示了當前研究人員如何使用這些方法。在接下來的章節中,她探討了人工神經網絡;進化和遺傳算法,這些算法在一代解決方案中尋找“最適者”;細胞自動機;人工生命 - 不僅僅是模擬,而是在計算機的內部生態系統中“活著”;DNA計算,利用DNA的編碼能力來設計算法;自組裝及其在納米技術中的潛在應用;無定形計算,模仿細胞群或蜜蜂群體中所見的合作形式;計算機免疫系統;生物硬件以及生物電子學與矽比較;以及細胞的“計算”特性。


1. 人工神經網絡
2. 進化和遺傳算法
3. 細胞自動機
4. 人工生命
5. DNA計算
6. 自組裝
7. 無定形計算
8. 計算機免疫系統
9. 生物硬件
10. 細胞的“計算”特性