Web Campaigning

Kirsten Foot, Steven M. Schneider

  • 出版商: MIT
  • 出版日期: 2006-10-06
  • 售價: $960
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$912
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 288
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 0262562200
  • ISBN-13: 9780262562201
  • 立即出貨(限量) (庫存=3)



The use of the Web in U.S. political campaigns has developed dramatically over the course of the last several election seasons. In Web Campaigning, Kirsten Foot and Steven Schneider examine the evolution of campaigns' Web practices, based on hundreds of campaign Web sites produced by a range of political actors during the U.S. elections of 2000, 2002, and 2004. Their developmental analyses of how and why campaign organizations create specific online structures illuminates the reciprocal relationship between these production practices and the structures of both the campaign organization and the electoral arena. This practice-based approach and the focus on campaigns as Web producers make the book a significant methodological and theoretical contribution to both science and technology studies and political communication scholarship.

Foot and Schneider explore the inherent tension between the desire of campaigns to maintain control over messages and resources and the generally decentralizing dynamic of Web-based communication. They analyze specific strategies by which campaigns mitigate this, examining the ways that the production techniques, coproducing Web content, online-offline convergence, and linking to other Web sites mediate the practices of informing, involving, connecting, and mobilizing supporters. Their conclusions about the past decade's trajectory of Web campaigning point the way to a political theory of technology and a technologically grounded theory of electoral politics.

A digital installation available on the web illustrates core concepts discussed in the text of the book with examples drawn from archived campaign Web sites. Users have the opportunity to search these concepts in the context of fully operational campaign sites, recreating the Web experience of users during the election periods covered in the book.

Kirsten A. Foot is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Washington.

Steven M. Schneider is Professor in the Department of Social Sciences and Humanities at SUNY Institute of Technology.


Table of Contents

Digital Resource xi
 Acknowledgments xiii
 Foreword xix
1. Web Campaigning: Introduction and Overview 1
 Caught in the Web 1
 Defining Web Campaigning 4
 Web Campaigning, 1994-2004 7
 Theorizing Web Campaigning 12
 Online Structures and Web Spheres 18
 Structure of the Book 24
2. Tracing Practices within a Web Sphere 27
 Web Sphere Analysis 27
 Bounding Web Spheres 30
 Web Production Techniques 35
 Methods for Tracing Campaign Practices in U.S. Electoral Web Spheres 40
3. Informing 45
 A Practice Observed: Informing 45
 The Practice of Informing 46
 Techniques of Informing 49
    Documentation 49
    Position Taking and Issue Dialogue 52
    Convergence 55
    Linking 57
    Coproduction 59
 Tensions in Informing 61
4. Involving 69
 A Practice Observed: Involving 69
 The Practice of Involving 70
 Techinques for Involving 77
    Transaction 77
    Convergence 85
    Linking 89
    Coproduction 91
 Tensions in Involving 96
5. Connecting 101
 A Practice Observed: Connecting 101
 Techniques for Connecting 104
    Association 104
    Convergence 107
    Coproduction 112
    Linking 118
 Tensions in Connecting 122
6. Mobilizing 129
 A Practice Observed: Mobilizing 129
 The Practice of Mobilizing 136
    Convergence 136
    Coproduction 143
    Linking 145
    Empowerment 148
 Tensions in Mobilizing 153
7. Explaining the Adoption of Web Campaigning Practices 157
 Web Producers in a Social-professional Context 160
 Campaigns in an Organizational Context 167
 The Web in the Context of Genre 175
 The Structuring Effects of Practice 181
8. Web Campaigning: Implications and Trajectory 187
 The Future Observed 187
 Summing Up Web Campaigning 189
 Reflections on Web Sphere Analysis 191
 Web Impacts 194
 Looking Ahead 204
 The Value of Practice 209
 Appendix: Methods 211
 Overview 211
 Campaign Web Site Analyses 214
 Focus Groups 220
 Web User Survey 222
 Producer Interviews 223
 Producer Survey 225
 Notes 227
 References 241
 Index 255