Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection: A Multimedia Teaching Guide

Tibor Horváth

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2006-06-16
  • 售價: $3,574
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$3,395
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 220
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 0470030186
  • ISBN-13: 9780470030189

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商品描述

Description

The advent of complex intelligent structures and low-voltage electronic installations within buildings requires increasingly sophisticated lightning protections techniques. As a multimedia book, Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection is a unique, interactive self-teaching tool that provides an in-depth understanding of lightning protection.

Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection helps the reader to understand the propagation of waves within complex intelligent structures within buildings, and the operation of systems designed to protect these structures. It also comments on proper human behaviour during a lightning thunderstorm.

  • Accompanied by a web-based animation program http://www.wiley.com/go/horvath
  • Shows the fundamental processes of the lightning phenomenon, and helps the reader to understand the measures of protection against lightning damage.
  • Offers a new theory and calculation method to estimate the efficiency of lightning air termination systems, which helps to evaluate the residual risk of the lightning protection system.
  • Examines the propogation of waves and the associated protection of intelligent systems against lightning electromagnetic impulses.

This interactive teaching tool is designed for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in electrical engineering, construction, physics and meteorology. It will also provide a valuable resource for practitioners within electric power distribution, electronics, informatics & construction safety.

 

Table of Contents

Chapters and Subsections.

Introduction.

Guide to use the program.

1. Cloud, cyclone and fronts.

Development of a cloud.

Growth of a thunderstorm cloud.

Development of a cyclone.

Warm and cold fronts.

Distribution of thunderstorms.

2. Electric charges in clouds.

Processes of charge separation.

Charging process in the liquid phase.

Charging process during freezing.

Final distribution of charges.

Static electric field.

Relation to the ionosphere.

3. Discharge processes in air.

Photon processes.

Excitation by photon.

Ionisation and absorption.

Recombination.

Electron collisions.

Excitation by electron.

Ionisation by collision.

Discharges.

Electron avalanche.

Streamer discharge.

Klydonograph.

Leader discharge.

Chapters and subsections.

4. Development of the lightning flash.

Start on drops in the cloud.

From leader to main stroke.

Multiple stroke.

Upward leader.

The Boys-camera: Principle and construction.

The Boys-camera: Operation.

Boys-record of ideal lightning.

Real Boys-records.

5. Physics of the lightning discharge.

Properties of a downward leader.

Condition of connecting leader.

Striking process.

Development of main stroke.

Multiple and upward stroke.

The current wave.

Lightning parameters.

Distribution functions.

6. Curious lightning phenomena.

Properties of ball lightning.

Ball lightning-theories.

Resonance theory.

Quantum-theory.

Theory of magnetic vortex.

Photos of ball lightning.

Beaded lightning.

Stroke from clear sky.

Discharge to the ionosphere.

7. Induced voltage.

Ampère's law.

Rectangular loop+infinite conductor.

Rectangular loop+cut conductor.

Reduction to basic components.

Triangular loop.

Polygonal loop.

Induced voltage due to direct stroke.

Induced current due to direct stroke.

Induced voltage due to distant stroke.

Induced current due to distant stroke.

Chapters and subsections.

8. Dynamic forces due to lightning.

Parallel wires.

Force due to lightning on a rod struck at the top.

Force due to lightning on a horizontal wire.

Force due to lightning on a metal plate.

Force of leaded current at inversion of wire.

Force of leaded current on a tube.

Dynamic force on a console.

Slit effect.

Damage on tree.

9. Heat effects on metal objects.

Heating a metal plate.

Change of temperature in a metal plate.

Equations of melting a metal plate.

Crater and droplets.

Melting a wire at contact spot.

Melting a wire leading current.

Probability of melting.

10. Lightning attachment.

Point of orientation.

The striking distance.

Distribution and density functions.

The expected frequency of stroke.

The principle of calculation.

11. Collection space of structures.

Procedure of calculation.

collection spaces of structures.

The principle of collection space.

Dividing the collection space.

Two conductors.

Lightning rod on tower.

Air terminations of block-house.

The collection space of one mesh.

12. Protective effect on flat roof.

Air termination systems on blockhouse.

Diagrams related to several air terminations.

Application of rolling sphere method.

Chapters and subsections.

13. Protection of inclined roof.

Types of air termination systems.

Attraction of roof and eaves.

Effect of electrodes on eaves.

Effect of electrodes on the edges.

Attraction of unprotected edges.

Stroke-free period.

14. Residual risk of lightning protection.

The flow diagram.

Equivalent area of a structure.

Cases of the point of strike.

Cases of damaging stroke.

Intercepted stroke.

Striking the roof.

Weighting the consequences.

Resulting damage.

Resulting frequency of weighted damage.

Resulting risk.

15. Classification of structures.

Classes of structures.

Height and surroundings.

High surroundings.

Increased danger of stroke.

Classes according to height.

Effect of the soil profile.

The materials of roof.

Further classifications.

16. Air termination systems.

Level of risk and protection.

Construction methods.

Protective angle.

Rolling sphere.

Mesh size.

Degrees of air termination.

Natural air termination.

Simplified air termination.

Data of higher degrees.

Distance to the structure.

Forms of air terminations.

Chapters and subsections.

17. Down conductors and metal objects.

Down conductors.

Calculation of current paths.

Example of current path.

Positioning along the perimeter.

Degrees of down conductors.

Forms of down conductors.

Vertical metal structures.

Dangerous loops.

Bonding metal structures.

Insulating spacers.

Elevators.

18. Earthing of lightning protection system.

Degrees of earthing.

Natural earthing.

Simple earthing systems.

Earthing resistance.

Normal and enhanced systems.

Earthing by foundation.

Soil resistivity.

Measurement of earthing resistance.

Impulse earthing.

19. Lightning electromagnetic impulse.

Conductive coupling.

Inductive coupling.

Capacitive coupling.

Distribution of current.

Arriving current along a single line.

Arriving current along branching line.

Faraday holes.

Shielded entrance.

Shielded cable.

Circuit of lightning.

20. Graded surge-protection.

Operation principles.

Three stage with resistors.

Influence of distance between stages.

Propagation of waves.

Waves on devices.

Chapters and subsections.

21. Surge protection devices.

Gas filled arrester.

Arc blowing spark gap.

Gliding spark gap.

Encapsulated arrester.

Characteristics of gaps.

The varistor.

Characteristics of varistor.

Types of protection devices.

22. Internal lightning protection zones.

Structure of zones.

Networks of information systems.

Tray configuration.

23. Connection to electric power network.

Striking the supply line.

Striking the air termination.

TT system.

Outdoor kWh box.

24. Protection of electronic devices.

Protection of personal computer.

Protection of television.

Relay station.

25. Lightning measurement and localization.

Measuring of lightning current.

Magnetic card.

Magnetic link.

Shunt resistor.

Coil of Rogowski.

Reflection of the current wave.

Localising by direction finding.

Localising by pulse arrival time.

Lightning detection systems.

26. The mankind in the thunderstorm.

Danger in open air.

Danger on or beside a tree.

Step voltage.

What to do outdoors?.

Danger on a bicycle.

Danger at a car.

Danger at a truck.

Danger in water.

Danger in boats and vessels.

References.

Index.