Satellite Technology: Principles and Applications

Anil K. Maini, Varsha Agrawal

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2007-01-29
  • 售價: $4,110
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$3,905
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 576
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0470033355
  • ISBN-13: 9780470033357
  • 相關分類: 衛星通訊 Satellite-networking

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Description

Offering readers a concise and yet comprehensive reference, Satellite Technology provides a unique coverage of both the principles and applications in this wide field. This book covers the technological and application aspects of satellites in one volume, ensuring not only extensive coverage of communications-related applications of satellites, but also other important applications such as remote sensing, weather forecasting, navigation, scientific and military.

The essentials of satellite technology are explained, by giving an introduction to the fundamental topics such as orbits and trajectories, launch and in-orbit operations before going on to describe satellite hardware, communication techniques, multiple access techniques and link design. Topics range from the history and evolution of satellites, and the laws governing motion of artificial satellites around earth, to multiplexing techniques, satellite subsystems and link design fundamentals.

  • Amply illustrated with a large number of figures and photographs, as well as relevant mathematics and design examples
  • Contains a large number of problems with solutions, which would particularly benefit students at undergraduate and graduate levels
  • Companion website provides a complete compendium on features and facilities of satellites and satellite launch vehicles from past, present and planned futuristic satellite missions for various applications

The coverage of satellite technology together with its applications make the book an essential reference book for professionals, R&D scientists and engineers and students at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

 

Table of Contents

Preface.

Part-I – Satellite Technology.

Chapter-1. Introduction to Satellites and their Applications.

           INTRODUCTION.

1.1     EVER EXPANDING APPLICATION SPECTRUM.

1.2     WHAT IS A SATELLITE?.

1.3     HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF SATELITES.

Era of Hot Air Balloons and Sounding Rockets.

Launch of Early Artificial Satellites.

Satellites for Communications, Meteorology and Scientific Exploration - Early Developments.

Non-geosynchronous Communication Satellites.

TELSTAR and RELAY Programs.

Emergence of Geosynchronous Communication Satellites.

International communication satellite systems.

Domestic communication satellite systems.

Satellites for Other applications also make rapid progress.

1.4     EVOLUTION OF LAUNCH VEHICLES - KEY WORDS.

Chapter-2. Satellite Orbits and Trajectories.

          INTRODUCTION.

2.1     DEFINITION OF AN ORBIT AND A TRAJECTORY.

2.2     ORBITING SATELLITES – BASIC PRINCIPLES.

Newton’s Law of Gravitation.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion.

Kepler’s Laws.

2.3     ORBITAL PARAMETERS.

2.4     INJECTION VELOCITY AND RESULTING SATELITE TRAJECTORIES.

2.5     TYPES OF ORBITS.

Orientation of the Orbital plane.

Eccentricity of Orbit.

Distance from Earth.

Sun-Synchronous Orbit.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-3. Satellite Launch and In-Orbit Operations.

           INTRODUCTION.

3.1     ACQUIRING THE DESIRED ORBIT.

Parameters defining satellite orbit.

Modifying the orbital parameters.

3.2     LAUNCH SEQUENCE.

          Types of Launch Sequence.

3.3     SATELLITE STABILIZATION.

Spin Stabilization.

Three-axis Stabilization.

Comparison between Spin-stabilized and 3-axis stabilized satellites.

Station-keeping.

3.4     ECLIPSES.

3.5     EARTH STATION AZIMUTH AND ELEVATION ANGLES.

Computing the Slant Range.

Computing the Line-of-Sight Distance between two Satellites.

3.6     EARTH COVERAGE AND GROUND TRACKS.

Satellite Altitude and Earth coverage area.

Satellite Ground Tracks.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-4. Satellite Hardware.

INTRODUCTION.

4.1     SATELLITE SUBSYSTEMS.

4.2     MECHANICAL STRUCTURE.

Design considerations.

Typical structure.

4.3     PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM.

Basic principle.

Types of propulsion systems.

4.4     THERMAL CONTROL SUBSYSTEM

Sources of thermal in-equilibrium.

Mechanism of heat transfer.

Types of thermal control.

4.5     POWER SUPPLY SUBSYSTEM.

Types of power systems.

Solar Energy Driven Power System.

Solar panels.

Batteries.

4.6     ATTITUDE AND ORBIT CONTROL.

4.7     TRACKING, TELEMETRY AND COMMAND SUBSYSTEM.

4.8     PAYLOAD.

4.9     ANTENNA SUBSYSTEM.

Antenna Parameters.

Types of antennas.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-5. Communication Techniques.

INTRODUCTION.

5.1     TYPES OF INFORMATION SIGNALS.

Voice Signals.

Data Signals.

Video Signals.

5.2     AMPLITUDE MODULATION.

Frequency Spectrum of AM Signal.

Power in AM Signal.

Noise in AM Signal.

Different Forms of Amplitude Modulation.

5.3     FREQUENCY MODULATION.

Frequency Spectrum of FM Signal.

Narrow Band and Wide Band FM.

Noise in FM Signal.

Generation of FM Signals.

Detection of FM Signals.

5.4     PULSE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS.

Analog Pulse Communication Systems.

Digital Pulse Communication Systems.

5.5     SAMPLING THEOREM.

5.6     SHANNON-HARTLEY THEOREM.

5.7     DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES.

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK).

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK).

Phase Shift Keying (PSK).

Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK).

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK).

Offset QPSK.

5.8     MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES.

Frequency Division Multiplexing.

Time Division Multiplexing.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-6. Multiple Access Techniques.

INTRODUCTION.

6.1     INTRODUCTION TO MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES.

Transponder Assignment Modes.

6.2     FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA).

6.3     SINGLE CHANNEL PER CARRIER (SCPC) SYSTEMS.

SCPC/FM/FDMA System.

SCPC/PSK/FDMA System.

6.4     MULTIPLE CHANNELS PER CARRIER (MCPC) SYSTEMS.

MCPC/FDM/FM/FDMA System.

MCPC/PCM-TDM/PSK/FDMA System.

6.5     TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA).

6.6     TDMA FRAME STRUCTURE.

Reference Burst.

Traffic Burst.

Guard Time.

6.7     TDMA BURST STRUCTURE.

Carrier and Clock Recovery Sequence.

Unique Word.

Signaling Channel.

Traffic Information.

6.8     COMPUTING UNIQUE WORD DETECTION PROBABILITY.

6.9     TDMA FRAME EFFICIENCY.

6.10   CONTROL AND COORDINATION OF TRAFFIC.

6.11   FRAME ACQUISITION AND SYNCHRONIZATION.

Extraction of Traffic Bursts from Receive Frames.

Transmission of Traffic Bursts.

Frame synchronization.

6.12.  CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA).

DS-CDMA Transmission and Reception.

Sequence Synchronous DS-CDMA.

Sequence Asynchronous DS-CDMA.

Frequency Hop CDMA (FH-CDMA) System.

Time Hopping CDMA (TH-CDMA) System.

Comparison of DS-CDMA, FH-CDMA and TH-CDMA Systems.

6.13.  SPACE DOMAIN MULTIPLE ACCESS (SDMA).

Frequency Re-use in SDMA.

SDMA/FDMA System.

SDMA/TDMA System.

SDMA/CDMA System.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-7. Satellite Link Design Fundamentals.

INTRODUCTION.

7.1     TRANSMISSION EQUATION.

7.2     SATELLITE LINK PARAMETERS.

Choice of operating frequency.

Propagation Considerations.

Noise Considerations.

Interference-related problems.

7.3     FREQUENCY CONSIDERATIONS.

Frequency allocation and coordination.

7.4     PROPAGATION CONSIDERATIONS.

Free space loss.

Gaseous absorption.

Attenuation due to rain.

Signal fading due to refraction.

Ionosphere related effects.

Polarization Rotation - Faraday Effect.

Scintillation.

Fading due to multipath signals.

7.5     NOISE CONSIDERATIONS.

Thermal noise.

Noise figure.

Noise temperature.

Noise figure and Noise temperature of cascaded stages.

Antenna noise temperature.

Overall system noise temperature.

7.6     INTERFERENCE RELATED PROBLEMS.

Intermodulation distortion.

Interference between satellite and terrestrial links.

Interference due to adjacent satellites.

Cross-polarization interference.

Adjacent channel interference.

7.7     ANTENNA GAIN-TO-NOISE TEMPERATURE (G/T) RATIO.

7.8     LINK BUDGET.

KEY WORDS.

Part-II – Satellite Applications.

Chapter-8. Communication Satellites.

INTRODUCTION.

8.1     INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SATELLITES.

8.2     COMMUNICATION RELATED APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE.

8.3     FREQUENCY BANDS.

8.4     PAYLOADS.

Types of Transponders.

Transponder Performance Parameters.

8.5     SATELLITE VERSUS TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS.

8.6     SATELLITE TELEPHONY.

Point-to-Point Trunk Telephone Networks.

Mobile Satellite Telephony.

8.7     SATELLITE TELEVISION.

A Typical Satellite TV Network.

Satellite-cable television.

Satellite-local broadcast TV network.

Direct-to-Home Satellite Television.

8.8     SATELLITE RADIO.

8.9     SATELLITE DATA COMMUNICATION SERVICES

Satellite Data Broadcasting.

VSATs (Very Small Aperture Terminals).

VSAT network topologies.

8.10   IMPORTANT MISSIONS.

International Missions.

Regional Missions.

Domestic Missions.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-9. Remote Sensing Satellites.

INTRODUCTION.

9.1     REMOTE SENSING – AN OVERVIEW.

Aerial Remote Sensing.

Satellite Remote Sensing.

9.2     CLASSIFICATION OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS.

Optical Remote Sensing Systems.

Thermal Remote Sensing Systems.

Microwave Remote Sensing Systems.

9.3     REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE ORBITS.

9.4     REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE PAYLOADS.

Classification of Sensors.

Sensor Parameters.

9.5     PASSIVE SENSERS.

Passive scanning sensors.

Passive Non-scanning sensors.

9.6     ACTIVE SENSORS.

Active Non-scanning sensors.

Active scanning sensors.

9.7     TYPES OF IMAGES.

Monogenic secondary images.

Polygenic secondary images.

9.8     IMAGE CLASSIFICATION.

9.9     IMAGE INTERPRETATION.

Interpreting Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing Images.

Interpreting Microwave Remote Sensing Images.

GIS in remote sensing.

9.10   APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES.

Land Cover Classification.

Land Cover Change Detection.

Water quality monitoring and management.

Flood Monitoring.

Urban Monitoring and development.

Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature.

Deforestation.

Global Monitoring.

Predicting Disasters.

Other Applications.

9.11   MAJOR REMOTE SENSING MISSIONS.

Landsat Satellite System.

SPOT satellites.

RADARSAT Satellite System.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-10. Weather Satellites.

INTRODUCTION.

10.1   WEATHER FORECASTING – AN OVERVIEW.

10.2   WEATHER SATELLITE FUNDAMENTALS.

10.3   IMAGES FROM WEATHER SATELLITES.

          Visible images.

IR images.

Water Vapor Images.

Microwave Images.

Images formed by active probing.

10.4   WEATHER SATELLITE ORBITS.

10.5   WEATHER SATELLITE PAYLOADS.

Radiometer.

Altimeter.

Scatterometer.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).

LIDAR.

10.6   IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

Image Enhancement Techniques.

10.7   WEATHER SATELLITE APPLICATIONS.

Measurement of Cloud parameters.

Rainfall.

Wind Speed and Direction.

Ground Level Temperature Measurements.

Air Pollution and Haze.

Fog.

Oceanography.

Severe Storm Support.

Fisheries.

Snow and Ice Studies.

10.8   MAJOR WEATHER SATELLITE MISSIONS.

GOES Satellite System.

Meteosat satellite system.

Advanced TIROS-N (ATN) NOAA satellites.

KEY WORDS.

Chapter-11. Navigation satellites.

INTRODUCTION.

11.1   DEVELOPMENT OF SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS. 

           Doppler Effect based satellite navigation systems.

Trilateration based satellite navigation systems.

11.2   THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE SYSTEM (GPS).

Space Segment.

Control segment.

User segment.

11.3   WORKING PRINCIPLE OF GPS SYSTEM.

Principle of Operation.

GPS signal structure.

Pseudorange measurements.

Determination of Receiver Location.

11.4   GPS POSITIONING SERVICES AND POSITIONING MODES.

GPS Positioning Services.

GPS Positioning Modes.

11.5   GPS ERROR SOURCES.

11.6   GLONASS SATELLITE SYSTEM.

GLONASS segments.

GLONASS signal structure.

11.7   GPS-GLONASS INTEGRATION.

11.8   APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS.

Military Applications.

Civilian Applications.

11.9   FEATURES OF FUTURE NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS.

KEYWORDS.

Chapter-12. Scientific Satellites.

INTRODUCTION.

12.1   SPACE BASED VS. GROUND BASED SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES.

12.2   PAYLOADS ON-BOARD SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES.

Payloads for studying Earth’s Geodesy.

Payloads for Earth environment studies.

Payloads for Astronomical studies.

12.3   APPLICATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES- STUDY OF EARTH.

Space Geodesy.

Tectonics and Internal Geodynamics.

Terrestrial magnetic Fields.

12.4   OBSERVATION OF THE EARTH’S ENVIRONMENT.

Study of Ionosphere and the Magnetosphere.

Study of the Upper Atmosphere (Aeronomy).

Earth Radiation Budget.

Earth’s surface and Interface with the Atmosphere.

12.5   ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS.

Observation of Sun.

12.6   MISSIONS FOR STUDYING CELESTIAL BODIES OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

Inner Planets.

Outer Planets.

Moon.

Asteroids.

Comets.

12.7   MISSIONS FOR OBSERVATIONS BEYOND THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

12.8   OTHER FIELDS OF INVESTIGATION.

Microgravity Experiments.

Life Sciences.

Material Sciences.

Cosmic Ray and Fundamental Physics Research.

KEYWORDS.

Chapter-13. Military Satellites.

INTRODUCTION.

13.1   MILITARY SATELLITES AN OVERVIEW.

Applications of Military Satellites.

13.2   SATELLITE MILITARY COMMUNICATION.

13.3   DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS.

American Systems.

Russian Systems.

Satellites launched by other countries.

13.4   FREQUENCY SPECTRUM UTILIZED BY SPACE SYSTEMS.

13.5   DUAL USE MILITARY SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS.

13.6   RECONNAISANCE SATELLITES.

Intelligence Imagery or IMINT satellites.

13.7   SIGINT SATELLITES.

13.8   EARLY WARNING SATELLITES.

13.9   NUCLEAR EXPLOSION SATELLITES.

13.10 MILITARY WEATHER FORECASTING SATELLITES.

13.11 MILITARY NAVIGATION SATELLITES.

Further Reading.

Glossary.

Subject index.