Advanced Modeling in Computational Electromagnetic Compatibility (Hardcover)

Dragan Poljak




This book will enable readers to handle various EMC problems, to develop their own EMC computational models in applications in research and industry, and to better understand numerical methods developed and used by other researchers and engineers not only in EMC, but in other areas of engineering. For example, students and engineers can use the calculation methods for the radiation of base station antennas for planning the location of GSM and UMTS base stations and for the human exposure assessment based on material covered. The applied models can also be used to solve other research problems. This book will provide a crash course in fundamentals on electromagnetics and numerical modeling, and will cover a broad range of EMC problems of interest.


Table of Contents


1. Introduction to Computational Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility.

1.1 Historical Note on Modeling in Electromagnetics.

1.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Interference.

1.2.1 EMC Computational Models and Solution Methods.

1.2.2 Classification of EMC Models.

1.2.3 Summary Remarks on EMC Modeling.

1.3 References.

2. Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Theory.

2.1 Differential Form of Maxwell Equations.

2.2 Integral Form of Maxwell Equations.

2.3 Maxwell Equations for Moving Media.

2.4 The Continuity Equation.

2.5 Ohm’s Law.

2.6 Conservation Law in the Electromagnetic Field.

2.7 The Electromagnetic Wave Equations.

2.8 Boundary Relationships for Discontinuities in Material Properties.

2.9 The Electromagnetic Potentials.

2.10 Boundary Relationships for Potential Functions.

2.11 Potential Wave Equations.

2.11.1 Coulomb Gauge.

2.11.2 Diffusion Gauge.

2.11.3 Lorentz Gauge.

2.12 Retarded Potentials.

2.13 General Boundary Conditions and Uniqueness Theorem.

2.14 Electric and Magnetic Walls.

2.15 The Lagrangian Form of Electromagnetic Field Laws.

2.15.1 Lagrangian Formulation and Hamilton Variational Principle.

2.15.2 Lagrangian Formulation and Hamilton Variational Principle in Electromagnetics.

2.16 Complex Phasor Notation of Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields.

2.16.1 Poyinting Theorem for Complex Phasors.

2.16.2 Complex Phasor Form of Electromagnetic Wave Equations.

2.16.3 The Retarded Potentials for the Time-Harmonic Fields.

2.17 Transmission Line Theory.

2.17.1 Field Coupling Using Transmission Line Models.

2.17.2 Derivation of Telegrapher’s Equation for the Two-Wire Transmission Line.

2.18 Plane Wave Propagation.

2.19 Radiation.

2.19.1 Radiation Mechanism.

2.19.2 Hertzian Dipole.

2.19.3 Fundamental Antenna Parameters.

2.19.4 Linear Antennas.

2.20 References.

3 Introduction to Numerical Methods in Electromagnetics.

3.1 Analytical Versus Numerical Methods.

3.1.1 Frequency and Time Domain Modeling.

3.2 Overview of Numerical Methods: Domain, Boundary, and Source Simulation.

3.2.1 Modeling of Problems via the Domain Methods: FDM and FEM.

3.2.2 Modeling of Problems via the BEM: Direct and Indirect Approach.

3.3 The Finite Difference Method.

3.3.1 One-Dimensional FDM.

3.3.2 Two-Dimensional FDM.

3.4 The Finite Element Method.

3.4.1 Basic Concepts of FEM.

3.4.2 One-Dimensional FEM.

3.4.3 Two-Dimensional FEM.

3.5 The Boundary Element Method.

3.5.1 Integral Equation Formulation.

3.5.2 Boundary Element Discretization.

3.5.3 Computational Example for 2D Static Problem.

3.6 References.

4 Static Field Analysis.

4.1 Electrostatic Fields.

4.2 Magnetostatic Fields.

4.3 Modeling of Static Field Problems.

4.3.1 Integral Equations in Electrostatics Using Sources.

4.3.2 Computational Example: Modeling of a Lightning Rod.

4.4 References.

5 Quasistatic Field Analysis.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Formulation of the Quasistatic Problem.

5.3 Integral Equation Representation of the Helmholtz Equation.

5.4 Computational Example.

5.4.1 Analytical Solution of the Eddy Current Problem.

5.4.2 Boundary Element Solution of the Eddy Current Problem.

5.5 References.

6 Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis.

6.1 The Electromagnetic Wave Equations.

6.2 Complex Phasor Form of the Wave Equations.

6.3 Two-Dimensional Scattering from a Perfectly Conducting Cylinder of Arbitrary Cross-Section.

6.4 Solution by the Indirect Boundary Element Method.

6.4.1 Constant Element Case.

6.4.2 Linear Elements Case.

6.5 Numerical Example.

6.6 References.


7 Wire Antennas and Scatterers: General Considerations.

7.1 Frequency Domain Thin Wire Integral Equations.

7.2 Time Domain Thin Wire Integral Equations.

7.3 Modeling in the Frequency and Time Domain: Computational Aspects.

7.4 References.

8 Wire Antennas and Scatterers: Frequency Domain Analysis.

8.1 Thin Wires in Free Space.

8.1.1 Single Straight Wire in Free Space.

8.1.2 Boundary Element Solution of Thin Wire Integral Equation.

8.1.3 Calculation of the Radiated Electric Field and the Input Impedance of the Wire.

8.1.4 Numerical Results for Thin Wire in Free Space.

8.1.5 Coated Thin Wire Antenna in Free Space.

8.1.6 The Near Field of a Coated Thin Wire Antenna.

8.1.7 Boundary Element Procedures for Coated Wires.

8.1.8 Numerical Results for Coated Wire.

8.1.9 Thin Wire Loop Antenna.

8.1.10 Boundary Element Solution of Loop Antenna Integral Equation.

8.1.11 Numerical Results for a Loop Antenna.

8.1.12 Thin Wire Array in Free Space: Horizontal Arrangement.

8.1.13 Boundary Element Analysis of Horizontal Antenna Array.

8.1.14 Radiated Electric Field of the Wire Array.

8.1.15 Numerical Results for Horizontal Wire Array.

8.1.16 Boundary Element Analysis of Vertical Antenna Array: Modeling of Radio Base Station Antennas.

8.1.17 Numerical Procedures for Vertical Array.

8.1.18 Numerical Results.

8.2 Thin Wires Above a Lossy Half-Space.

8.2.1 Single Straight Wire Above a Dissipative Half-Space.

8.2.2 Loaded Antenna Above a Dissipative Half-Space.

8.2.3 Electric Field and the Input Impedance of a Single Wire Above a Half-Space.

8.2.4 Boundary Element Analysis for Single Wire Above a Real Ground.

8.2.5 Treatment of Sommerfeld Integrals.

8.2.6 Calculation of Electric Field and Input Impedance.

8.2.7 Numerical Results for a Single Wire Above a Real Ground.

8.2.8 Multiple Straight Wire Antennas Over a Lossy Half-Space.

8.2.9 Electric Field of a Wire Array Above a Lossy Half-Space.

8.2.10 Boundary Element Analysis of Wire Array Above a Lossy Ground.

8.2.11 Near-Field Calculation for Wires Above Half-Space.

8.2.12 Computational Examples for Wires Above a Lossy Half-Space.

8.3 References.

9 Wire Antennas and Scatterers: Time Domain Analysis.

9.1 Thin Wires in Free Space.

9.1.1 Single Wire in Free Space.

9.1.2 Single Wire Far Field.

9.1.3 Loaded Straight Thin Wire in Free Space.

9.1.4 Two Coupled Identical Wires in Free Space.

9.1.5 Measures for Postprocessing of Transient Response.

9.1.6 Computational Procedures for Thin Wires in Free Space.

9.1.7 Numerical Results for Thin Wires in Free Space.

9.2 Thin Wires in a Presence of a Two-Media Configuration.

9.2.1 Single Straight Wire Above a Real Ground.

9.2.2 Far Field Equations.

9.2.3 Loaded Straight Thin Wire Above a Lossy Half-Space.

9.2.4 Two Coupled Horizontal Wires in a Two Media Configuration.

9.2.5 Thin Wire Array Above a Real Ground.

9.2.6 Computational Procedures for Horizontal Wires Above a Dielectric Half-Space.

9.2.7 Computational Examples.

9.3 References.


10 Transmission Lines of Finite Length: General Considerations.

10.1 Transmission Line Theory Method.

10.2 Antenna Models of the Transmission Lines.

10.2.1 Above-Ground Transmission Lines.

10.2.2 Below-Ground Transmission Lines.

10.3 References.

11 Electromagnetic Field Coupling to Overhead Lines: Frequency Domain and Time Domain Analysis.

11.1 Frequency Domain Analysis: Derivation of Generalized Telegrapher’s Equations 345

11.2 Frequency Domain Computational Results.

11.2.1 Single Wire Above an Imperfect Ground.

11.2.2 Multiple Wire Transmission Line Above an Imperfect Ground.

11.3 Time Domain Analysis.

11.4 Time Domain Computational Examples.

11.4.1 Single Wire Transmission Line.

11.4.2 Two Wire Transmission Line.

11.4.3 Three Wire Transmission Line.

11.5 References.

12 The Electromagnetic Field Coupling to Buried Cables: Frequency- and Time-Domain Analysis.

12.1 The Frequency-Domain Approach.

12.1.1 Formulation in the Frequency Domain.

12.1.2 Numerical Solution of the Integral Equation.

12.1.3 The Calculation of Transient Response.

12.1.4 Numerical Results.

12.2 Time-Domain Approach.

12.2.1 Formulation in the Time Domain.

12.2.2 Time-Domain Energy Measures.

12.2.3 Time-Domain Numerical Solution Procedures.

12.2.4 Computational Examples.

12.3 References.

13 Simple Grounding Systems.

13.1 Vertical Grounding Electrode.

13.1.1 Integral Equation Formulation for the Vertical Grounding Electrode.

13.1.2 The Evaluation of the Input Impedance Spectrum.

13.1.3 Numerical Procedures for Vertical Grounding Electrode.

13.1.4 Calculation of the Transient Impedance.

13.1.5 Numerical Results.

13.2 Horizontal Grounding Electrode.

13.2.1 Integral Equation Formulation for the Horizontal Electrode.

13.2.2 The Evaluation of the Input Impedance Spectrum.

13.2.3 Numerical Procedures for Horizontal Electrode.

13.2.4 The Transient Impedance Calculation.

13.2.5 Numerical Results.

13.3 Transmission Line Method Versus Antenna Theory Approach.

13.3.1 Transmission Line Method (TLM) Approach to Modeling of Horizontal Grounding Electrode.

13.3.2 Computational Examples.

13.4 Measures for Quantifying the Transient Response of Grounding Electrodes.

13.4.1 Transient Response Assessment.

13.4.2 Measures for Quantifying the Transient Response.

13.4.3 Computational Examples.

13.5 References.

14 Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields.

14.1 Environmental Risk of Electromagnetic Fields: General Considerations.

14.1.1 Nonionizing and Ionizing Radiation.

14.1.2 Electrosmog or Radiation Pollution at Low and High Frequencies.

14.1.3 The Effects of Low Frequency Fields.

14.1.4 The Effects of High Frequency Fields.

14.1.5 Remarks on Electromagnetic Fields and Related Possible Hazard to Humans.

14.2 Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields: Frequency and Time Domain Approach.

14.2.1 Frequency Domain Cylindrical Antenna Model.

14.2.2 Realistic Models of the Human Body for ELF Exposures.

14.2.3 Human Exposure to Transient Electromagnetic Fields.

14.3 Human Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Fields.

14.3.1 Parasitic Antenna Representation of the Human Body.

14.3.2 Realistic Modeling of the Human Body.

14.4 Exposure of Humans to Transient Radiation: Cylindrical Model of the Human Body.

14.4.1 Time Domain Model of the Human Body.

14.4.2 Measures of the Transient Response.

14.5 References.







1. 計算電磁學和電磁兼容性簡介。
1.1 電磁學建模的歷史注解。
1.2 電磁兼容性和電磁干擾。
1.2.1 EMC計算模型和解決方法。
1.2.2 EMC模型的分類。
1.2.3 EMC建模的總結。
1.3 參考文獻。

2. 電磁理論基礎。
2.1 麥克斯韋方程的微分形式。
2.2 麥克斯韋方程的積分形式。
2.3 運動介質的麥克斯韋方程。
2.4 連續性方程。
2.5 歐姆定律。
2.6 電磁場中的守恆定律。
2.7 電磁波方程。
2.8 材料性質不連續的邊界關係。
2.9 電磁勢。
2.10 勢函數的邊界關係。
2.11 勢波方程。
2.11.1 庫倫規範。
2.11.2 擴散規範。
2.11.3 洛倫茲規範。
2.12 遲滯勢。
2.13 一般邊界條件和唯一性定理。
2.14 電場和磁場的邊界。
2.15 電磁場定律的拉格朗日形式。
2.15.1 拉格朗日形式和哈密頓變分原理。
2.15.2 電磁學中的拉格朗日形式和哈密頓變分原理。
2.16 時變電磁場的複數相位表示。
2.16.1 複數相位的波因定理。
2.16.2 時變場的複數相位形式的電磁波方程。
2.16.3 時變場的遲滯勢。
2.17 傳輸線理論。
2.17.1 使用傳輸線模型的場耦合。
2.17.2 二線傳輸線的電報方程推導。
2.18 平面波傳播。
2.19 輻射。
2.19.1 輻射機制。
2.19.2 赫茲偶極子。
2.19.3 基本天線參數。
2.19.4 線性天線。
2.20 參考文獻。

3. 電磁學中的數值方法簡介。
3.1 解析方法與數值方法的比較。
3.1.1 頻域和時域建模。
3.2 數值方法概述:領域、邊界和源模擬。
3.2.1 通過領域方法進行問題建模:有限差分法和有限元法。
3.2.2 通過邊界元法進行問題建模:直接法。