e-Business: Organizational and Technical Foundations
Michael P. Papazoglou, Pieter Ribbers
e-business inextricably aligns technological advances with business models, business repurposing efforts and organizational structures in order to support end-to-end business processes that span the boundaries of the extended enterprise value chain.
- Using lots of real-world examples, this incisive guide helps people understand the theory and practice of e-business today
- Offers a thorough examination of the relationship of e-business to business strategy, from business models, supply chains and integrated value chains to governance structures
- Covers key topics that businesses need to consider with designing an e-business strategy, from XML and business processes to electronic intermediaries and markets, e-procurement and e-business networks
- Provides a complete overview of the technical foundations of e-business, with discussions of security, middleware, component-based development, legacy applications, enterprise application integration, web services and business protocols
Table of Contents
1 The World of e-Business.
1. What is e-Business?
1.1 e-Business vs. e-Commerce.
1.2 Some critical factors.
2. Characteristics of e-Business.
3. Elements of an e-Business solution.
4. e-Business roles and their challenges.
5. e-Business requirements.
6. Impacts of e-Business.
7. Inhibitors of e-Business.
7.1 Management/Strategy Issues.
7.2 Cost / Financing.
7.3 Security and trust.
7.4 Legal issues.
7.5 Technological concerns.
8. Chapter Summary.
2 e-Business Strategy.
1. What is e-Business strategy?
2. Strategic positioning.
3. Three levels of e-Business strategy.
4. The changing competitive agenda: business and technology drivers.
5. The strategic planning process.
6. Strategic alignment.
7. The consequences of e-Business: theoretical foundations.
7.1 Theory of competitive strategy.
7.2 The resource-based view.
7.3 Transaction cost economics.
8. Success Factors for implementation of E-Business Strategies.
8.1 e-Business transformation as an ‘ill structured problem’.
8.2 The need for Program Management.
8.3 Design characteristics of Program Management.
8.4 Change Agentry.
9. Chapter summary.
3 Business Models.
1 Pressures forcing business changes.
2 Business models - definitions.
3 Classifications of business models.
3.1 Internet enabled business models.
3.2 Value web business models.
3.3 The e-Business enabled business models.
3.4 Market participants business model.
3.5 Cybermediaries business model.
4 Towards networked business models.
5 Chapter summary.
4 e-Business Relationships.
1. Modelling interdependent business activities: the value chain.
1.1 The business unit value chain.
1.2 Value chain analysis.
1.3 Value stream analysis.
1.4 Unbundling the business unit value chain.
1.5 The industry value chain.
2. Business processes and their management.
2.1 Business process management.
2.2 Characteristics of business processes.
2.3 Types of business processes.
2.4 Role of IT in business processes.
3. Types and characteristics of e-Business relationships.
3.1 Types of e-Business relationships.
3.2 Types of business relationships and information exchange.
3.3 Characteristics of e-Business relationships.
4. Electronic links and the value chain.
5. Chapter summary.
5 Governance Structures.
1. Markets versus hierarchies: theoretical contributions.
1.1 The transaction cost perspective.
1.2 Transaction aspects: asset specificity, product complexity and frequency.
1.3 Behavioural assumptions: bounded rationality and opportunism.
1.4 The resource-based perspective.
3. The effects of information technology on governance.
3.1 The electronic market hypothesis.
3.2 The move-to-the –middle hypothesis.
4. Chapter summary.
6 e – Business Technological Infrastructure.
1 Technical e-Business challenges.
2 Basic infrastructure: client/server technology.
3 Web technologies and applications.
3.1 Web-based applications.
3.2 Architectural features of Web-based applications.
4 Collaborative technologies.
4.1 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).
4.2 Workflow systems.
5 The role of Enterprise Information Systems in e-Business.
6 Chapter Summary.
7 XML the enabling technology for e-Business.
1 Brief overview of XML.
2 Characteristics of XML documents.
2.1 XML declaration.
2.3 XML namespaces.
2.4 Well formed and valid documents.
3 Defining structure in XML documents.
3.1 Document Type Definition (DTD).
3.2 Overview of XML schema.
4 Document presentation and transformation.
4.1 Using XSL to display documents.
4.2 Using XSLT to transform documents.
5 Processing XML documents.
6 XML, EDI and e-Business.
7 Chapter Summary.
8 Electronic Markets.
1. Electronic Markets defined.
1.1 How do electronic markets work.
1.2 Functional characteristics of business-to-business e-Markets.
1.3 Classification of electronic markets.
1.4 Market-making mechanisms.
1.5 Biased or unbiased markets.
2. The functions of electronic markets.
3. How do electronic markets differ from traditional markets?
3.1 Personalization and customization.
3.2 Information goods.
3.4 Transaction mechanisms.
3.5 Price discovery.
3.7 Electronic invoicing and payment.
4. What are the effects of electronic markets?
4.1 The impact of the emergence of electronic markets.
4.2 Stakeholders: buyers, suppliers, investors and service suppliers.
5. Electronic market success factors.
5.1 Context-related success factors.
6. e-Market technology solutions.
7. Chapter summary.
2. The purchasing process.
2.1 Modelling the purchasing process.
2.2 Purchasing as part of supply chain management.
3. Developments in purchasing.
4. IT and purchasing.
5.1 e-Procurement models.
5.2 The components of e-Procurement systems.
5.3 Internet-based e-catalogue systems.
5.4 Catalogue aggregation.
7. e-Procurement solutions.
8. The slow adoption of e-Procurement.
9. Chapter summary.
10 e-Business Networks.
2. Network organizations.
3. Interorganizational information systems and network organizations.
3.1 System integration and business benefits.
3.2 Interoperability: a matter of standards.
3.3 Classifying inter-organizational information systems.
3.4 Limits to the reach of network organizations.
4 Supply chains.
4.1 Logistics - flow and network perspectives.
4.2 Supply chain management.
4.3 Technology solutions for supply chains.
5 Integrated supply chains.
5.1 Essential requirements of integrated value chains.
6 Concluding remarks.
7 Chapter summary.
11 Intermediaries in the Value Systems.
2. Definition and classification of intermediaries.
2.1 Transactional intermediaries or infomediaries.
2.2 Added value and functions.
3. Dynamics in the value system.
3.2 Are intermediaries threatened?
3.3 The intermediation-disintermediation-re-intermediation cycle.
4. Chapter summary.
12 e-Business Modelling.
1 Business modelling.
1.1 Types of models.
2 Business processes and collaborations.
3 Business modelling with UML.
3.1 Class diagrams.
3.2 Activity Diagrams.
3.3 Use case diagrams.
3.4 Sequence diagrams.
3.5 Deployment diagram.
3.6 Business process modelling with UML 2.0.
4 Business process modelling methodologies.
4.1 The Unified Software Development Process.
4.2 The Rational Unified Process (RUP).
4.3 The UN/CEFACT modelling methodology.
5 The Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model.
6 The Model Driven Architecture (MDA).
7 Business Process Modelling Notation.
7.1 Comparing BPMN with UML.
8 Chapter Summary.
13 Security and Reliability for e-Business.
1 Reliability and Quality Considerations.
2 Quality requirements.
4 e-Business risks.
5 e-Business security.
5.1 Security mechanisms for e-Business.
6 Realizing a secure e-Business infrastructure.
6.1 Infrastructure availability.
6.2 Network Level Security.
6.3 Secure communications.
6.4 Digital certification and trusted third parties.
6.5 Trust services overview.
7 Chapter Summary.
14 Approaches to Middleware.
1. What is middleware?
3. Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs).
3.1 Remote Method Invocation (RMI).
4. Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM).
4.1 Integration brokers.
4.2 The Java Message Service.
5. Data-access middleware.
6. Transaction oriented middleware.
6.1 Transaction processing (TP) monitors.
6.2 Application servers.
7. Distributed object middleware.
7.1 Object Request Brokers (ORBs).
7.2 The Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) component model.
8. Newer generation frameworks.
9. Chapter Summary.
15 Component-based Development.
1 What are components?
1.1 Component characteristics.
2 Interfaces and contracts.
3 Business components and entities.
3.1 Business entities.
3.2 Business components.
4 Component models and compositions.
4.1 Component models.
4.2 Component compositions.
5 Component frameworks and patterns.
5.1 Characteristics and types of frameworks.
5.2 Business patterns.
6 Business component architecture.
7 Business component-based design and development.
7.1 Designing components.
7.2 Developing components.
7.3 Certifying components.
8 Advantages and limitations of component-based development.
9 Chapter Summary.
16 Leveraging Legacy Applications.
1. Enterprise information systems and legacy enterprise assets.
2. Strategies for modernising legacy systems.
3. Non-invasive approaches.
3.3 Presentation tier modernisation techniques.
4. Invasive approaches.
4.3 Re-engineering and transformation.
5. Legacy modernisation techniques.
5.1 Legacy componentisation.
5.2 Requirements for componentisation.
6. Chapter Summary.
17 Enterprise Application Integration.
1. The application integration imperative.
1.1 Target applications.
2. Operational and financial drivers.
3. What is Enterprise Application Integration?
4. Typical topologies for enterprise application integration.
4.1 Point-to-point topology.
4.2 Publish/Subscribe (shared bus) topology.
4.3 Hub and spoke topology.
5. Types of application integration: passive vs. active.
6. Layers of EAI integration.
6.1 Transportation layer.
6.2 Data integration layer.
6.3 Application programming interface integration layer.
6.4 Business process integration layer.
7. Workflow, EAI, and BPM technologies: A comparison.
8. When to use synchronous or asynchronous communication.
9. Elements of the application integration architecture.
10. Implementing business process-level EAI.
10.1 Integration broker-based process-level integration.
10.2 Application server-based process-level integration.
11. Summary of application integration infrastructure functions.
12. Chapter Summary.
18 e-Business Integration.
1. Business processes and e-Business integration.
2. Business process redesign.
4. Overview of e-Business integration.
4.1 Choosing the type of integration.
4.2 The role of standards.
4.3 Initial comparison between EAI and e-Business integration.
5. Topologies for e-Business integration.
6. Workflow, BPM, EAI and e-Business.
7. Integration challenges: the semantic interoperability problem.
7.1 Semantic issues at the data-level.
7.2 Semantic issues at the business process-level.
8. Business integration patterns and their implications.
8.1 Integrated enterprise business pattern.
8.2 Brokered enterprise business pattern.
8.3 Federated enterprise
9. e-Business integration requirements revisited.
10. Wrapping up: what are the real differences between e-Business and EAI?
11. Chapter Summary.
19 Building Loosely Coupled e-Business Applications.
2 The concept of software as a service.
3 What are web services?
4 Web services: types and characteristics.
5 The service-oriented architecture.
5.1 Roles of interaction in the service oriented architecture.
5.2 Operations in the service-oriented architecture.
6 The web services technology stack.
7 Web services standards.
7.1 SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol.
7.2 WSDL: Web Services Description Language.
7.3 UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration.
8 Web services orchestration.
9 Web services transactions.
10 Web services security and policy considerations.
11 EAI and web services.
12 Chapter Summary.
20 Business Protocols.
2 Why are business standards and protocols needed?
3 XML technology stack for e-Business integration.
3.1 Components in support of e-Business within a single value chain.
3.2 Components in support of e-Business within an e-Markets.
5 Electronic Business XML.
5.1 Conducting Business via ebXML.
5.2 Architectural model of ebXML.
6 Convergence between Rosetta, ebXML and web services.
7 Chapter Summary.