Introduction to Microdisplays (Hardcover)

David Armitage, Ian Underwood, Shin-Tson Wu

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2006-11-01
  • 售價: $1,390
  • 貴賓價: 9.8$1,362
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 396
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 047085281X
  • ISBN-13: 9780470852811

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Description

Microdisplays are tiny, high-resolution electronic displays that are designed for use in a magnified optical system.  They look set to play a big part in 3G mobile applications by providing miniature full colour wide-angle viewing screens for new telecomms devices. 

Introduction to Microdisplays covers the structure and performance of microdisplays and their associated optical imaging systems. It provides a description of the evolution of current microdisplay technology and presents a strategy for future developments and applications.  It also offers guidance on the design of application specific microdisplays, including microdisplays for defence, and telecommunication applications and covers OLEDs – a hot new topic within the display community.

The authors have excellent combined experience across these broad fields and have produced a thorough and comprehensive reference on this emerging topic. As such this book will prove valuable reading for display technology manufacturers and developers and system integrators, practising electrical engineers, physicists, chemists and specialists in the display field, graduate electronics students and researchers and developers working in optics, material sciences and telecommunications.

 

Table of Contents

Series Editor’s Foreword.

Preface.

1. Introduction.

1.1 Microdisplays.

1.2 Human Factors.

1.2.1 Color .

1.2.2 Resolution.

1.2.3 Flicker.

1.2.4 Contrast Ratio.

1.2.5 Grayscale .

1.2.6 Viewing Comfort.

1.3 Display Specifications.

1.3.1 Resolution and Size.

1.3.2 Luminance and color saturation.

1.3.3 Contrast Ratio and Gray Scale.

1.3.4 Response speed and flicker.

1.4 Displays in General.

1.4.1 Cathode Ray Tube.

1.4.2 Matrix Addressed Displays.

1.4.3 Field emission displays.

1.4.4 Plasma Displays.

1.4.5 Liquid Crystal Displays.

1.4.6 Electroluminescent Displays.

1.4.7 Electromechanical Displays.

1.5 Microdisplay Evolution.

1.6 Microdisplay Applications.

1.6.1 Projection Displays.

1.6.2 Near-Eye Displays.

1.6.3 Other Applications.

2 Electronic Addressing.

2.1 Introduction.

2.1.1 General Introduction.

2.1.2 Addressing Methods.

2.1.3 Gray Scale.

2.14 Color.

A Spatially segmented (or sub-pixelated) RGB system.

B Field sequential color (FSC) system.

C Scrolling color mechanism.

D Tree-microdisplay system.

2.15 Active Matrix Technologies.

2.16 LCOS The Early Days.

2.2 MOS Transistor.

2.2.1 Characteristic Equations.

2.2.2 MOS Capacitor.

2.2.3 MOS Transistor Switches.

2.2.4 CMOS Inverter.

2.2.5 MOS Memory Circuits.

2.3 LCOS System Electronics Architecture.

2.3.1 Overview and Classification.

2.3.2 Interface and Support Architecture.

A Near to Eye System Example.

B Projection System Example.

2.3.3 Backplane Electronics.

A Backplane Architecture and Floorplan.

B Data Path.

C Test Circuits.

D Interfaces & Data Rates.

2.4 Analogue Pixel Drive Schemes for Analogue Electro-Optic Response.

2.4.1 Analogue Voltage Addressing.

2.4.2 DC Balanced Driving of Liquid Crystals.

A D.C. Balancing with Fixed Front Electrode Voltage.

B D.C. Balancing by Switching the Front Electrode Voltage.

2.4.3 DRAM-Style Analogue Pixel.

A Circuit Description.

B Circuit Operation.

C Circuit Limitations.

2.4.4 Frame Buffer Pixels for Analogue Drive.

2.5 Digital Electronic Drive Schemes for Analog Electro-Optical Response.

2.5.1 Nematic Liquid Crystal.

2.5.2 Fringe Field Effects with Digital Drive.

2.5.3 Response Time Considerations for Digital Drive.

2.6 Digital Pixel Drive Schemes for Binary Electro-Optical Response.

2.6.1 Single Pulse Width Modulation.

2.6.2 Binary Coded Pulse Coded Modulation (B-PWM).

2.6.3 B-PWM Pixel Circuits.

A Dram-Style Pixel Circuits.

B SRAM Based Circuits.

C Frame Buffer and Other Circuits for Digital Drive.

2.6.4 Grayscale Contouring.

2.7 DMD Microdisplay Circuit.

2.8 OLED Microdisplay Circuits.

2.8.1 OLED Microdisplays System Overview.

2.8.2 OLED Pixel Circuits using TFTs.

2.8.3 OLED Microdisplay with Digital Addressing- Example.

2.8.4 OLED Microdisplay with Analogue Addressing- Example.

2.9 Photo-Addressing.

3 Silicon Backplane Technology.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 CMOS Technology.

3.2.1 Background.

3.2.2 MOS Transistor Structure.

3.2.3 MOS Integrated Circuit Structure.

3.2.4 CMOS Fabrication process.

3.3 CMOS for microdisplays.

3.3.1 Background.

3.3.2 Pixel Aperture Ratio.

3.3.3 Metal Layer Count.

3.3.4 High Voltage Structures.

3.3.5 LCoS Microdisplays.

3.4 Wafer and die bow.

3.4.1 Wafer flatness and surface metrology.

3.5 Surface planarization.

3.5.1 General Techniques.

3.5.2 Chemical Mechanical Polishing.

3.5.3 Damascene polishing.

3.6 Pixel storage.

3.7 Light blocking.

3.8 Mirror quality.

3.9 Pixel gap fill.

3.10 LC Cell gap.

3.11 LCoS CMOS summary.

3.12 Backplane technology for other microdisplays.

3.12.1 Transmissive LCoS.

3.12.2 MOEMS.

3.12.3 OLED CMOS.

3.13 Silicon Technology Roadmap.

3.14 Cost of silicon.

3.14.1 Wafer Cost.

3.14.2 Yield.

3.14.3 Good dice per wafer.

3.14.4 Cost per good die.

3.15 Summary.

4 Transmission Microdisplays Structure.

4.1 Background.

4.2 Thin film transistors.

4.3 Polysilicon.

4.3.1 Background.

4.3.2 Preparation.

4.4 Polysilicon microdisplay.

4.4.1 Matrix address.

4.4.2 Physical layout.

4.4.3 Aperture ratio.

4.4.4 Microlens array.

4.4.5 Performance.

4.4.6 Recent Development.

4.5 Transferred silicon.

4.5.1 Concept.

4.5.2 Process.

4.5.3 Performance.

4.6 Silicon-on-sapphire.

5 Transmission Liquid Crystal Microdisplays.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 TFT-LCD.

5.3 Projection System.

5.4 Twisted-Nematic Cells.

5.4.1 Jones Matrices.

5.4.2 Viewing Angle.

5.5 Vertically-Aligned Nematic (VAN) Cells.

5.5.1 LC Alignment.

A. SiOx Evaporation.

B. Mechanical Buffing.

C. Ion Beam Etching.

5.5.2 Electro-Optic Effects.

A. Voltage-Dependent Transmittance.

B. Pretilt Angle Effect.

C. View Angle.

5.5.3 Response Time.

A. Overdrive and undershoot effects.

5.6 Fringing Field Effect.

5.7 Liquid crystal ionic effects.

5.7.1 Ionic conduction.

5.7.2 Space Charge.

5.7.3 Image sticking.

2.5.4 Electrode effects.

6 Reflective Liquid Crystal Microdisplays.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Normally Black Homeotropic Cell.

6.2.1 Voltage-dependent Reflectance.

6.2.2 Pretilt Angle Effect.

6.2.3 Viewing Cone.

6.2.4 Fringing Field Effect.

6.2.5 Effect of Fringing on Image Quality.

6.2.6 Cell gap.

6.3 Normally White Homogenous Cell.

6.3.1 Voltage Dependent Reflection.

6.3.2 Viewing Cone.

6.3.3 Fringing Field Effect.

6.4 Reflective TN Cells.

6.5 Normally White 90o MTN Cell.

6.5.1 Voltage-dependent Reflectance.

6.5.2 Viewing Cone.

6.5.3 Fringing Field Effect.

6.6 Normally White 63.6o MTN Cell.

6.6.1 Voltage-dependent Reflectance.

6.6.2 Viewing Cone.

6.6.3 Fringing Field Effect.

6.7 Normally Black 63.6o TN Cell.

6.7.1 Optimal d/p Ratio.

6.7.2 Voltage-dependent Reflectance.

6.7.3 Viewing Cone.

6.7.4 Fringing Field Effect.

6.8 Normally White 60o MTN Cell.

6.8.1 Bisector Effect.

6.8.2 Viewing Cone.

6.9 Normally White 45o MTN Cell.

6.9.1 Voltage-dependent Reflectance.

6.9.2 Viewing Cone.

6.9.3 Fringing Field Effect.

6.10 Normally Black 45o TN.

6.10.1 Voltage-dependent Reflectance.

6.10.2 Viewing Cone.

6.10.3 Fringing Field Effect.

6.11 Finger-On-Plane Structure.

6.12 Scattering and Diffractive Microdisplays.

6.12.1 Polymer Dispersed Nematics.

6.12.2 Diffraction.

6.13 Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals.

6.13.1 Surface Stabilized FLC.

6.13.2 Other FLC Modes.

7 LCD Assembly and Test.

7.1 Background.

7.2 Back end processing.

7.2.1 Dielectric mirror.

7.2.2 Liquid crystal alignment layer.

7.3 Assembly components.

7.3.1 Active matrix substrate.

7.3.2 Transparent counter electrode.

7.3.3 Cell gap spacers.

7.3.4 Liquid crystal seal.

7.3.5 Liquid crystal.

7.4 Assembly methods.

7.4.1 Wafer-scale assembly.

7.4.2 Seal and spacer application.

7.4.3 Assembly pressure.

7.4.4 Singulation.

7.4.5 Cell filling and plug.

7.4.6 One Drop Filling.

7.4.7 Packaging.

7.5 Test.

7.5.1 Assembly Tests.

7.5.2 Specifications.

7.5.3 Specification Tests.

7.5.4 Stress Tests.

8 Micromechanical Devices.

8.1 Background.

8.1.1 Electrostatic deflection.

8.2 Digital Mirror Device.

8.2.1 Background.

8.2.2 Structure.

8.2.3 Fabrication.

8.2.4 Operation and throughput efficiency.

8.2.5 Diffraction Efficiency and Contrast Ratio.

8.2.6 Addressing.

8.2.7 Lifetime.

8.2.8 Fast Track Pixel.

8.3 Piezoelectric Micromirror.

8.3.1 Structure and Operation.

8.3.2 Fabrication.

8.4 Grating Light Valve.

8.4.1 Operation and performance.

8.4.2 Fabrication and testing.

8.5 Interference modulation.

8.6 Further development.

9 Emissive Microdisplays.

9.1 Introduction.

9.1.1 Background to Organic Electronics & Displays.

9.1.2 Basic Operation.

A Electrical Conduction.

B Carrier Injection.

C Electron-hole Recombination.

D Organic Light Emitting Diode.

9.2 Organic Emissive Materials.

9.2.1 Classification.

9.2.2 Small Molecule OLED (SMOLED).

9.2.4 Phosphorescent OLED.

9.2.5 Dendrimer OLED.

9.2.6 Example Performance Data.

9.3 Device Construction & Manufacture.

9.3.1 SMOLED.

9.3.2 PHOLED.

9.3.3 P-OLED.

9.3.4 PIN OLED.

9.3.5 Encapsulation and Packaging.

9.3.6 Display Efficiency.

9.4 Device Characteristics.

9.4.1 D.C Characteristics.

9.4.2 Switching Time.

9.4.3 Ageing.

9.5 Color.

9.5.1 Patterned RGB Color Filter.

9.5.2 Patterned RGBW Color Filter.

9.5.3 Patterned Red and Green Color Converter.

9.5.4 Patterned RGB OLED layers.

9.5.5 Stacked RGB Emitting Layers (R/G/B).

9.5.6 Color Summary.

9.6 OLED Microdisplays.

9.6.1 General Properties of OLED Microdisplays.

9.6.2 Small Molecule OLED (SMOLED) on Silicon Devices.

9.6.3 Polymer OLED Microdisplays.

9.7 Other Emissive Microdisplays.

9.7.1 Inorganic Electroluminescent Microdisplays.

9.7.2 Gallium Nitride Microemitter Arrays.

9.7.3 Porous Silicon Microdisplays.

9.8 Summary.

10 Projection Displays.

10.1 Background.

10.2 Throughput.

10.2.1 Lumen Scale.

10.2.2 Etendue Limit.

10.3 Laser and LED sources.

10.3.1 Lasers.

10.3.2 LEDs.

10.4 Arc Lamps.

10.4.1 Lamp Structure.

10.4.2 Lamp Output.

10.5 Polarizing Optics.

10.5.1 Absorbing polarizer.

10.5.2 Polarizing Beamsplitter.

10.5.3 Wire grid polarizers.

10.5.4 Polarization conversion.

10.5.5 Optical compensation.

10.6 Color management.

10.6.1 Field sequential color.

10.6.2 Color scrolling systems.

10.6.3 RGB pixel systems.

10.6.4 Parallel color.

10.7 Schlieren projector.

10.8 Laser scanning.

10.9 Projector Performance.

10.9.1 Flicker.

10.9.2 Grayscale.

10.9.3 Lumen Output.

10.9.4 Contrast Ratio.

10.9.5 Color Uniformity.

10.9.6 Resolution.

11 Near-Eye Systems.

11.1 Background.

11.2 Magnification.

11.2.1 Virtual Image.

11.2.2 Eye Box.

11.2.3 Compound Magnification.

11.2.4 Catadioptric System.

11.3 Field of View.

11.4 Microdisplay Factors.

11.5 Magnifiers.

11.6 Camera Viewfinder.

11.7 Head mounted displays.

11.7.1 General Considerations.

11.7.2 TIR Prism.

11.8 Free-surface prisms.

11.9 Eyewear-based displays.

11.10 Light-guide System.

11.10.1 Reflective Array.

11.10.2 Diffractive Array.

11.11 Wide field of view.

11.11.1 Single Microdisplay.

11.11.2 Tiled Microdisplays.

11.12 Portable Equipment.

Table of Symbols.