Multi-Gigabit Transmission over Multimode Optical Fibre: Theory and Design Methods for 10GbE Systems (Hardcover)

Stefano Bottacchi

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2006-09-01
  • 售價: $2,100
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,995
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 653
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0471891754
  • ISBN-13: 9780471891758

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Description

Multi-Gigabit Transmission over Multimode Optical Fibre presents a system design approach to single-wavelength laser-based multimode optical fibre transmission systems, operating at multi-gigabit data rates. 

The first part of the book focuses on theoretical issues, covering close-form mathematical modelling of multimode fibre behaviour, with special attention on the impulse response.  Part two presents a modular system modelling approach discussing its features, applications, and limitations. The author gives a detailed discussion of the Electronic Dispersion Compensator implemented using the Decision Feedback Equalizer technique.  In addition, pioneering laboratory measurements of 10GbE over several hundreds of meters of legacy multimode fibres are presented in a systematic context for the first time.

Multi-Gigabit Transmission over Multimode Optical Fibre:

  • Provides a comprehensive guide to single-wavelength laser-based multimode optical fibre transmission systems, covering physics, systems and networks.
  • Covers the theory, modelling and design criteria of high speed and multimode fibre optic communication systems.
  • Explains waveguide theories, opto-electronic devices and system design.
  • Offers a self-contained description of the optical pulse propagation theory.
  • Discusses Electronic Dispersion Compensation technique as the most efficient mitigation of the multimode pulse dispersion.

Multi-Gigabit Transmission over Multimode Optical Fibre will be an essential resource for R&D engineers and system designers, as well as advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in the area of telecommunications and networking.

Table of Contents

Preface.

Book Organization.

1. Introductory Concepts.

Components and Design Issues for a Multigigabit Link over Multimode Fiber.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Multimode Optical Fibers.

1.3 Semiconductor Laser Sources.

1.4 Offset Launch Conditions.

1.5 Optical Receivers.

1.6 Signal Compensation Techniques.

1.6.1 Electronic Dispersion Compensation (EDC).

1.6.2 Optical Mode Filtering (OMF).

1.6.3 Quaternary Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM-4).

1.7 Conclusions and Recommendations.

1.8 Optical Fiber Transmission Standards.

2. Conductive Transmission Lines.

A Simplified Attenuation Model.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 The Attenuation Model.

2.2.1 The Surface Impedance.

2.2.2 The Transmission Line Loss Approximation.

2.2.3 Thickness Frequency.

2.2.4 DC Resistance.

2.2.5 The Resistance Model.

2.2.6 The Inductance Model.

2.2.7 The Impedance Model.

2.2.8 Frequency Response.

2.2.9 Commenting Model Approximations.

2.3 Design Applications.

2.3.1 Fixed Length and Width, Variable Thickness.

2.3.2 Fixed Width and Thickness, Variable Length.

2.4 Impulse Response.

2.5 Conclusions.

3. Principles of Multimode Optical Fiber.

Theory and Modeling Issues for Multigigabit Transmission Links.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The Graded Refractive Index.

3.2.1 Group Velocity.

3.3 Modal Theory of Graded Index Fiber.

3.3.1 Physical Medium Assumptions.

3.3.2 Wave Equations for Longitudinal Invariance.

3.3.3 Wave Equations for Axial Symmetric Fibers.

3.3.4 Modal Field Structure and Properties.

3.3.5 Comments on Pulse Propagation.

3.3.6 Weakly Guiding Fibers and Mode Groups.

3.4 Theory of the Modal Impulse Response.

3.4.1 The Differential Mode Delay.

3.5 Linear Propagation Regime.

3.5.1 Single-Pulse Excitation.

3.5.2 Multiple-Pulse Excitation.

3.6 The Optimum Refractive Index.

3.6.1 Clad Power Law Grading.

3.7 Physics of the Chromatic Dispersion.

3.7.1 The Sellmeier Equation for the Refractive Index.

3.7.2 Frequency Domain.

3.7.3 Wavelength Domain.

3.7.4 Polynomial Approximation.

3.7.5 The Chromatic Dispersion Coefficient.

3.8 Waveguide Dispersion.

3.9 Frequency Chirping.

3.9.1 Long-Wavelength Region (Anomalous Region).

3.9.2 Short-Wavelength Region (Normal Region).

3.10 Higher-Order Linear Dispersion.

3.10.1 The Effective Refractive Index.

3.10.2 General Expression for Higher-Order Dispersion.

3.11 The Gaussian Model.

3.11.1 Physical Model Review.

3.11.2 The Gaussian Frequency Response.

3.11.3 Gaussian Relationships.

3.11.4 Gaussian Responses.

4. Theory of Chromatic Response.

Modeling Light Source Effect in Multigigabit Transmission Links.

4.1 Introduction and Outline.

4.2 Theory of Chromatic Impulse Response.

4.2.1 Modal Delay.

4.2.2 Modal Chromatic Dispersion.

4.2.3 Source Spectrum Conditions.

4.2.4 Broadband Optical Sources.

4.2.5 Continuous Optical Source Spectrum.

4.2.6 Solution Methods for Impulse Responses.

4.3 The Chromatic Impulse Response Model.

4.3.1 Model Equations.

4.3.2 Computing Algorithm.

4.3.3 Numerical Solution Examples.

4.3.4 Comments and Remarks.

4.4 Moments of Chromatic Impulse Response.

4.4.1 Energy Normalization.

4.4.2 Average Value.

4.4.3 Linear Approximation of the Group Delay.

4.4.4 Pulse Dispersion: Variance and RMS Width.

4.4.5 Linear Approximation of the Group Delay.

4.4.6 Comments on the Linear Approximation.

4.4.7 Summary.

4.5 Conclusions and Remarks.

5. Theory of Multimode Response.

Application to Multigigabit Transmission Links.

5.1 Introduction and Outline.

5.2 Moments of Modal Impulse Response.

5.2.1 Energy Normalization.

5.2.2 Average Value.

5.2.3 Pulse Dispersion: Variance and RMS Width.

5.2.4 Conclusions and Remarks.

5.3 Theory of Multimode Impulse Response.

5.3.1 Problem Statement and Discussion.

5.3.2 The Mathematical Model.

5.3.3 Impulse Response Moments.

5.3.4 System Design Considerations.

5.4 The Multimode Impulse Response Model.

5.4.1 Model Assumptions.

5.4.2 Computer Simulation Procedure.

5.4.3 Simulation Results.

5.4.4 Influence of the Group Delay Distribution.

5.5 Theory of Multimode Frequency Response.

5.5.1 Basic Concepts and Definitions.

5.5.2 Spectral Characteristics and Physical Properties.

5.5.3 Simulation of Multimode Frequency Responses.

5.5.4 Concluding Remarks.

5.6 Summary and Conclusions.

6. Gaussian Approximation and Applications.

Link Bandwidth Calculations.

6.1 The Gaussian Model Approximation.

6.1.1 Prescriptions for Gaussian Modeling.

6.1.2 The Gaussian Response Model.

6.2 Comparing Engineering Solutions.

6.2.1 The Gaussian Link Dispersion Factor.

6.2.2 Hyperbolic Contour at Fixed Intensity.

6.2.3 Gaussian Equivalent Link Bandwidth.

6.2.4 Application to Legacy MMF.

6.3 Comparison with Transmission Lines.

6.4 Conclusions and Remarks.

7. Multimode Fiber Selected Topics.

Impairments and Methods for Multigigabit Transmission Links.

7.1 Impulse Response and Modal Bandwidth.

7.1.1 Gaussian Chromatic Response.

7.1.2 Modeling Impulse Responses.

7.1.3 Computer Simulation.

7.1.4 Modal Bandwidth Discussion.

7.1.5 Conclusions and Remarks.

7.2 Modal Theory of the Step-Index Fiber.

7.2.1 Introduction.

7.2.2 Field Solutions in the Core and in the Cladding.

7.2.3 Paraxial Approximation.

7.2.4 Mode Classification.

7.2.5 Boundary Conditions and Eigenvalues Problem.

7.2.6 Mode Classification.

7.2.7 Mode Distributions of the Step-Index Fiber.

7.2.8 Conclusions and Remarks.

7.3 Mode Power and Launch Conditions.

7.3.1 Field Expansion.

7.3.2 Modal Power.

7.3.3 Mode Normalization.

7.3.4 Mode Orthogonality.

7.3.5 Modal Amplitudes.

7.3.6 Source Field.

7.4 Conclusions.

8. The Optical Link Model.

Modeling the Optical Channel Behavior for Multigigabit Transmission.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 System Models and Assumptions.

8.2.1 Optical Equalization Issues.

8.2.2 Optical Link Modeling.

8.3 The Optical Transmitter.

8.3.1 Trapezoid Optical Pulse.

8.3.2 Error Function Shaped Optical Pulse.

8.3.3 Conclusion.

8.4 Intersymbol Interference.

8.4.1 Introduction.

8.4.2 Definitions.

8.4.3 Population Dimension.

8.4.4 Signal–ISI Joint Statistic.

8.5 The Optical Receiver.

8.5.1 The Optical Reference Receiver (ORR).

8.5.2 The Reference Receiver Spectrum (RRS).

8.5.3 A General Class of RRS.

8.5.4 Integral Representation Theorem of the RRS.

8.5.5 Examples of Reference Receiver Spectra.

8.5.6 Summary.

8.6 Conclusions.

9. Principles of Electronic Dispersion Compensation.

Concepts and Limitations Applied to Multimode Fiber Transmission.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 The Optical Decision Process.

9.2.1 Noise Models and Approximations.

9.2.2 Electrical Signal Power.

9.2.3 Electrical Noise-to-Signal Power Ratio: NSR.

9.2.4 Electrical Signal-to-Noise Power Ratio: SNR.

9.2.5 The Q-Factor.

9.2.6 Error Probability: BER.

9.2.7 Conclusions.

9.3 Principles of Linear Equalization.

9.3.1 The Reference Channel.

9.3.2 Noise Bandwidth of the Equalized Receiver.

9.3.3 The Optical Power Penalty.

9.3.4 Influence of the Raised Cosine Shaping Factor.

9.3.5 Penalty of the Inverse Filter Equalizer (IFE).

9.4 Conclusions.

10. Decision Feedback Equalization.

Expanding Multimode Fiber Capabilities.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Principles of Digital Equalization.

10.2.1 Problem Formulation and Modeling.

10.2.2 Open-Loop Samples.

10.2.3 Closed-Loop Samples.

10.2.4 Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE).

10.2.5 Receiver Optimization.

10.2.6 Computation of the MMSE.

10.2.7 The Eye Diagram Opening Penalty.

10.2.8 Calculation of the Eye Diagram Opening Penalty.

10.2.9 Comments and Conclusions.

10.3 The Optical Power Penalty.

10.3.1 The Reference Channel Problem.

10.3.2 Definition of the Optical Power Penalty.

10.3.3 Calculation of the Optical Power Penalty.

10.4 The Channel Metric.

10.4.1 Penalty for the Digital Equalizer (PIED).

10.4.2 Penalty for the Linear Equalizer (PIEL).

10.4.3 Channel Metrics Comparison: PIEI, PIEL, PIED.

10.5 DFE Architectures.

10.5.1 Automatic Gain Controlled (AGC) Amplifier.

10.5.2 Feedforward Filter (FFF).

10.5.3 Feedback Filter (FBF).

10.6 Conclusions.

11. Transmission Experiments.

Deploying Multigigabit Transmission Experiments over Multimode Fiber.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Measurement Outline.

11.3 Measurement Setup.

11.3.1 TOSA.

11.3.2 Optical Attenuator and Polarization Controller.

11.3.3 Offset Launcher SM → MM.

11.3.4 Multimode Fiber.

11.3.5 ROSA.

11.3.6 EDC and CDR.

11.3.7 Data Pattern and Waveform Records.

11.3.8 Single-Pulse Excitation.

11.3.9 Optical Sensitivity Bounds.

11.4 Polarization Effects in Multimode Fiber.

11.4.1 Introduction.

11.4.2 Theoretical Concepts.

11.4.3 Source Polarization and Offset Launch.

11.4.4 Further Directions.

11.5 Source and Receiver Characterization.

11.5.1 Optical Reference Transmitter.

11.5.2 Optical Reference Receiver.

11.6 The Benchmark Multimode Fiber.

11.6.1 Single-Pulse Responses.

11.6.2 Eye Diagram Responses.

11.7 A Simple Optical Link Emulator.

11.7.1 Modeling Approach.

11.7.2 Measurement Report.

11.8 Polarization Measurements at 10 GbE.

11.8.1 Standard Offset Launch.

11.8.2 Controlled Offset Launch.

11.8.3 Conclusions.

11.9 EDC Measurements over MMF.

11.9.1 Electrical Measurements.

11.9.2 Optical Measurements.

11.9.3 Using a Different Multimode Fiber.

11.10 Concluding Remarks.

Bibliography.

Index.