Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell (Hardcover)

Christopher G. Tully

  • 出版商: Princeton University
  • 出版日期: 2011-10-30
  • 售價: $1,300
  • 貴賓價: 9.8$1,274
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 320
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0691131163
  • ISBN-13: 9780691131160
  • 相關分類: 物理學 Physics
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<內容簡介>

The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs.

Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged from a course at Princeton University, also provides a comprehensive understanding of the subject. It explains every elementary particle physics process--whether it concerns nonaccelerator experiments, particle astrophysics, or the description of the early universe--as a gauge interaction coupled to the known building blocks of matter. Designed for a one-semester course that is complementary to a course in quantum field theory, the book gives special attention to high-energy collider physics, and includes a detailed discussion of the state of the search for the Higgs boson.

* Introduces elementary particle processes relevant to astrophysics, collider physics, and the physics of the early universe
* Covers experimental methods, detectors, and measurements
* Features a detailed discussion of the Higgs boson search
* Includes many challenging exercises

Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual which provides solutions for Chapters 1-3 of the textbook, is available as a PDF. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. To obtain a copy, please email your request to: Ingrid_Gnerlich@ press.princeton.edu

<章節目錄>

Preface ix
1 Particle Physics: A Brief Overview 1

1.1 Handedness in the Equation of Motion 1
1.2 Chiral Interactions 2
1.3 Fundamental Strong Interaction 3
1.4 Table of Elementary Particles 3
1.5 Mass and Charge 3
1.6 Hypercharge Interaction of the Standard Model 4
1.7 Higgs Mechanism 5
1.8 Program of Study 6
1.9 Exercises 6
1.10 References and Further Reading 7

2 Dirac Equation and Quantum Electrodynamics 9

2.1 Natural Units and Conversions 9
2.2 Relativistic Invariance 9
2.3 Pauli-Dirac Representation and Connection with Nonrelativistic QM 11
2.3.1 Constants of Motion 14
2.3.2 Velocity in Dirac Theory 16
2.4 Probability Current 17
2.5 Free-Particle Solutions in the Pauli-Dirac Representation 18
2.6 Antiparticles 21
2.6.1 Charge-Conjugation Symmetry 24
2.7 Lorentz Transformations 26
2.7.1 Lorentz Invariance of the Dirac Equation 29
2.7.2 Lorentz-Invariant Lagrangians and the Euler-Lagrange Equations 30
2.8 Weyl Representation 31
2.8.1 Weyl Spinor Two-Component Formalism 33
2.8.2 Free-Particle Solutions via Lorentz Boost Transform 33
2.9 Projection Operators and Completeness Relations 34
2.10 Discrete Lorentz Transformations 37
2.11 Covariant Form of the Electromagnetic Interaction 41
2.12 Relativistic Propagator Theory 43
2.12.1 Source Terms: Coulomb Scattering Potential 47
2.12.2 Photon Propagator 48
2.12.3 Massive Spin-1 Propagator 49
2.13 S-Matrix and Feynman Rules for QED 49
2.13.1 Cross Sections and Decay Rates 51
2.13.2 Worked Example: Mott Scattering 59
2.14 Spin Statistics 60
2.15 Exercises 64
2.16 References and Further Reading 71

3 Gauge Principle 73

3.1 Global Internal Symmetries 73
3.2 Local Gauge Symmetries 75
3.3 SU(2) and the Weak Interaction 78
3.3.1 Gauge Transformations of Massive Spin-1 Four-Potentials 81
3.3.2 Non-Abelian Four-Potentials 84
3.3.3 Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions 85
3.4 Electroweak Gauge Interactions 87
3.5 Gauge Interaction of QCD 89
3.6 Structure of Elementary Matter 94
3.7 Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking 97
3.8 Higgs Mechanism 98
3.8.1 Minimum Single-Doublet of Complex Scalar Fields 98
3.9 Glashow-Weinberg-Salam Theory of the Electroweak Interactions 103
3.10 Neutral-Current Feynman Rules 104
3.11 Fermion Masses and the CKM Mixing Matrix 106
3.12 Neutrino Masses and the CKM Mixing Matrix 108
3.13 Interaction Vertices in the Standard Model 110
3.14 Higgs Mechanism and the Nambu-Goldstone Theorem 111
3.15 Goldstone Boson Equivalence 114
3.16 Anomaly Cancellation 115
3.17 Exercises 118
3.18 References and Further Reading 122

4 Hadrons 124

4.1 Color Antiscreening and Quark Confinement 124
4.2 Light Mesons and Baryons 125
4.3 Flavor Symmetry 127
4.3.1 Nuclear Isospin 127
4.3.2 Meson Wave Functions 128
4.3.3 Baryon Wave Functions 131
4.4 Heavy Flavors, Quarkonia, and Meson Factories 133
4.5 Exerices 138
4.6 References and Further Reading 139

5 Detectors and Measurements 141

5.1 Photons and Electromagnetic Calorimeters 141
5.2 Electrons, Tracking, dE/dx, and Transition Radiation Detectors 144
5.3 Single Hadrons, Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov Radiation,
and Hadron Calorimeters 147
5.4 Muons and Muon Spectrometers 149
5.5 Jets and Jet Algorithms 151
5.6 b-Jets and Vertex Detectors 157
5.7 x-Leptons 159
5.8 Missing Transverse Energy 162
5.9 Neutrinos and Water Cherenkov Detectors 163
5.10 Dark Matter Detectors 165
5.11 Exercises 166
5.12 References and Further Reading 169

6 Neutrino Oscillations and CKM Measurements 171

6.1 Neutrino Oscillations 172
6.1.1 Atmospheric and Accelerator-Based Neutrino Experiments 174
6.1.2 Reactor Neutrino Experiments 175
6.1.3 Solar Neutrino Data 176
6.1.4 Neutrino Mass Hierarchy, Flavor Content, and Potential for CP Violation 179
6.2 CKM Parameterizations and CP Violation 180
6.3 Box Diagrams and the GIM Mechanism 183
6.4 Neutral Meson Oscillations and CP Violation 184
6.5 Constraints on the Unitarity Triangle 189
6.6 Exercises 190
6.7 References and Further Reading 195

7 e+e– Collider Physics 198

7.1 Fermion Pair Production 198
7.2 W Boson Decay 202
7.3 Resonance Production 204
7.3.1 Radiative Return 207
7.4 Measurement of ALR 210
7.5 Polarized x-Lepton Decays 211
7.5.1 Measurement of sin2iW from x Decays 212
7.6 W+W– Pair Production 212
7.7 Exercises 214
7.8 References and Further Reading 216

8 Hadron Colliders 218

8.1 Drell-Yan and the Parton Model 218
8.1.1 Kinematic Variables and Parton Distribution Functions 220
8.2 Single Boson Production 223
8.3 QCD Jet Production 225
8.3.1 Single Boson+Jet 229
8.3.2 W+Multijet 230
8.4 Top Quark Physics 230
8.4.1 Pair Production 231
8.4.2 Electroweak Single Top Production 233
8.4.3 Decay Properties 234
8.4.4 Mass Measurement 235
8.5 Trigger Rates and Thresholds 238
8.5.1 Multijet QCD Backgrounds 242
8.6 Exercises 244
8.7 References and Further Reading 247

9 Higgs Physics 249

9.1 Pre-LEP Searches 251
9.2 LEP1 Era 253
9.2.1 Production Mechanisms at the Z Resonance 253
9.2.2 Low-Mass Searches 253
9.3 Higgs Boson Production and Decay 255
9.3.1 Higgsstrahlung at an e+e– Collider 257
9.3.2 Vector Boson Fusion at a Hadron Collider 258
9.4 From LEP2 to the Tevatron and LHC 259
9.5 Standard Model Higgs Search 263
9.5.1 High-Resolution Search Channels 265
9.5.2 JetMET-Oriented Low-Mass Channels 272
9.5.3 Inclusive Dilepton Analysis 278
9.5.4 Boosted Dibosons from Heavy Higgs Decay 281
9.5.5 From 115 GeV/c2 to 1 TeV/c2 281
9.6 Exercises 284
9.7 References and Further Reading 286

Appendix: Standard Model Interactions and Their Vertex Forms 287

Index 291

商品描述(中文翻譯)

新的實驗正在瑞士CERN的大型強子對撞機(Large Hadron Collider)進行,這可能會顯著改變我們對基本粒子物理學和宇宙的理解。這本教科書提供了對這個領域的尖端介紹,使得一年級研究生和高年級本科生能夠在實驗和理論突破的曙光下理解和從事LHC物理學的工作。

在LHC的工作中積極參與的Christopher Tully解釋了該領域最近的一些實驗。但這本書是從普林斯頓大學的一門課程中產生的,它也提供了對這個主題的全面理解。它將每個基本粒子物理過程解釋為與已知物質組成部分相互作用的規範相互作用,無論是非加速器實驗、粒子天體物理學還是對早期宇宙的描述。設計為一學期的課程,與量子場論課程相輔相成,本書特別關注高能碰撞物理學,並詳細討論了尋找希格斯玻色子的狀態。

* 介紹了與天體物理學、碰撞物理學和早期宇宙物理學相關的基本粒子過程
* 講解了實驗方法、探測器和測量
* 詳細討論了尋找希格斯玻色子的狀態
* 包含許多具有挑戰性的練習題

教授們:附有解答的補充教師手冊,涵蓋了教科書的第1-3章,以PDF格式提供。僅限於使用該教材的教師。要獲得副本,請將您的請求發送到:Ingrid_Gnerlich@ press.princeton.edu

目錄
前言 ix
1 粒子物理學簡介 1

1.1 方程式中的手性 1
1.2 手性相互作用 2
1.3 基本強相互作用 3
1.4 基本粒子表 3
1.5 質量和電荷 3
1.6 標準模型中的超荷相互作用 4
1.7 希格斯機制 5
1.8 學習計劃 6
1.9 練習題 6
1.10 參考文獻和進一步閱讀 7

2 狄拉克方程和量子電動力學 9

2.1 自然單位和換算 9
2.2 相對論不變性 9
2.3 保利-狄拉克表示和與非相對論量子力學的聯繫 11
2.3.1 運動的常數 14
2.3.2 狄拉克理論中的速度 16
2.4 概率流 17
2.5 保利-狄拉克表示中的自由粒子解 18
2.6 反粒子 21
2.6.1 荷共軛對稱性 24
2.7 洛倫茲變換 26
2.7.1 狄拉克方程的洛倫茲不變性 29
2.7.2 洛倫茲不變性