Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation, 2/e (Hardcover)

Robert B. Northrop




analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation, Second Edition helps biomedical engineers understand the basic analog electronic circuits used for signal conditioning in biomedical instruments. It explains the function and design of signal conditioning systems using analog ICs—the circuits that enable ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, tomographic images, biochemical spectrograms, and other crucial medical applications.

This book demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning system design and illustrates how they can be used to build instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and many other biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It introduces the mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems, and it looks at how signal-to-noise ratios can be improved by signal averaging and linear filtering.


Analyzes the properties of photonic sensors and emitters and the circuits that power them
Details the design of instrumentation amplifiers and medical isolation amplifiers
Considers the modulation and demodulation of biomedical signals
Examines analog power amplifiers, including power op amps and class D (switched) PAs
Describes wireless patient monitoring, including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication protocols
Explores RFID, GPS, and ultrasonic tags and the design of fractal antennas
Addresses special analog electronic circuits and systems such as phase-sensitive rectifiers, phase detectors, and IC thermometers

By explaining the "building blocks" of biomedical systems, the author illustrates the importance of signal conditioning systems in the devices that gather and monitor patients’ critical medical information. Fully revised and updated, this second edition includes new chapters, a glossary, and end-of-chapter problems.

What's New in This Edition

Updated and revised material throughout the book
A chapter on the applications, circuits, and characteristics of power amplifiers
A chapter on wireless patient monitoring using UHF telemetry
A chapter on RFID tags, GPS tags, and ultrasonic tags
A glossary to help you decode the acronyms and terms used in biomedical electronics, physiology, and biochemistry
New end-of-chapter problems and examples


All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.

Sources and Properties of Biomedical Signals

Sources of Endogenous Bioelectric Signals

Nerve Action Potentials

Muscle Action Potentials

The Electrocardiogram

Other Biopotentials

Electrical Properties of Bioelectrodes

Exogenous Bioelectric Signals

Properties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systems

pn Junction Diodes

Midfrequency Models for BJT Behavior

Midfrequency Models for Field-Effect Transistors

High-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor Amplifiers

Photons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Laser Diodes

The Differential Amplifier

DA Circuit Architecture

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio

CM and DM Gain of Simple DA Stages at High Frequencies

Input Resistance of Simple Transistor DAs

How Signal Source Impedance Affects the Low-Frequency CMRR

How Op Amps Can be Used to Make DAs for Medical Applications

General Properties of Electronic, Single-Loop Feedback Systems

Classification of Electronic Feedback Systems

Some Effects of Negative Voltage Feedback

Effects of Negative Current Feedback

Positive Voltage Feedback

Feedback, Frequency Response, and Amplifier Stability

Review of Amplifier Frequency Response

What Is Meant by Feedback System Stability

The Use of Root Locus in Feedback Amplifier Design

Use of Root-Locus in the Design of "Linear" Oscillators

Operational Amplifiers and Comparators

The Ideal Op Amp

Practical Op Amps

Gain-Bandwidth Relations for Voltage-Feedback OAs

Gain-Bandwidth Relations in Current Feedback Amplifiers

Analog Voltage Comparators

Some Applications of Op Amps in Biomedicine

Introduction to Analog Active Filters

Active Filter Applications

Types of Analog Active Filters

Electronically Tunable AFs

Instrumentation and Medical Isolation Amplifiers

Instrumentation Amps

Medical Isolation Amps

Safety Standards in Medical Electronic Amplifiers

Medical-Grade Power Supplies

Noise and the Design of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning Systems for Biomedical Applications

Descriptors of Random Noise in Biomedical Measurement Systems

Propagation of Noise Through LTI Filters

Noise Factor and Figure of Amplifiers

Cascaded Noisy Amplifiers

Noise in Differential Amplifiers

Effect of Feedback on Noise

Examples of Noise-Limited Resolution of Certain Signal Conditioning Systems

Some Low-Noise Amplifiers

The Art of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning System Design

Digital Interfaces

Aliasing and the Sampling Theorem

Digital-to-Analog Converters

Sample-and-Hold Circuits

Analog-to-Digital Converters

Quantization Noise

Modulation and Demodulation of Biomedical Signals

Modulation of a Sinusoidal Carrier Viewed in the Frequency Domain

Implementation of AM

Generation of Phase and Frequency Modulation

Demodulation of Modulated Sinusoidal Carriers

Modulation and Demodulation of Digital Carriers

Power Amplifiers and Their Applications in Biomedicine

Power Output Devices

Classes of Power Amplifiers: PA Efficiency

Class D Power Amplifiers

Nonlinearity and Distortion in PAs

IC Voltage Regulators in Medical Electronic Systems


Wireless Patient Monitoring

Sensors and Sensor Signals Communicated in WPM

Modulation in WPM

RF Communications Protocols Used in WPM

UHF Transmitters and Antennas

WPM Systems

How WPM Reduces the Probability of Patient Microshock

Privacy in WPM

RFID Tags, GPS Tags, and Ultrasonic Tags Used in Ecological Research

Applications of RFID Tags

Design of RFID Tags

Tag Readers

GPS Tags

Ultrasonic Tags in Fisheries Biology

Examples of Special Analog Circuits and Systems Used in Biomedical Instrumentation

The Phase-Sensitive Rectifier

Phase Detectors

Voltage and Current-Controlled Oscillators

Phase-Lock Loops

True RMS Converters

IC Temperature Sensors

Three Examples of Medical Instrumentation Systems



Bibliography and Recommended Reading




- 分析光子傳感器和發射器及其供電電路的特性
- 詳細介紹儀器放大器和醫療隔離放大器的設計
- 考慮生物醫學信號的調變和解調
- 檢視類比功率放大器,包括功率運算放大器和D類(開關式)功率放大器
- 描述無線病人監測,包括Wi-Fi和藍牙通信協議
- 探索RFID、GPS和超聲波標籤以及分形天線的設計
- 處理特殊的類比電子電路和系統,如相敏整流器、相位檢測器和IC溫度計


- 全書內容經過更新和修訂
- 新增一章關於功率放大器的應用、電路和特性
- 新增一章關於使用UHF遙測進行無線病人監測
- 新增一章關於RFID標籤、GPS標籤和超聲波標籤
- 提供詞彙表,幫助讀者理解生物醫學電子學、生理學和生物化學中使用的縮寫和術語
- 新增章末問題和例子

- 生物醫學信號的來源和特性
- 內源性生物電信號的來源
- 神經動作電位
- 肌肉動作電位
- 心電圖
- 其他生物醫學信號