This book develops a framework that shows how uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (AI) expands and generalizes traditional AI. It explores the uncertainties of knowledge and intelligence. The authors focus on the importance of natural language – the carrier of knowledge and intelligence, and introduce efficient physical methods for data mining amd control. In this new edition, we have more in-depth description of the models and methods, of which the mathematical properties are proved strictly which make these theories and methods more complete. The authors also highlight their latest research results.