Building Resilient IP Networks

Kok-Keong Lee, Fung Lim, Beng-Hui Ong

  • 出版商: Cisco Press
  • 出版日期: 2005-12-22
  • 售價: $2,120
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$2,014
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 432
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 1587052156
  • ISBN-13: 9781587052156
  • 已絕版
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The practical guide to building resilient and highly available IP networks 

  • Learn from an all-in-one introduction to new features and developments in building a resilient IP network
  • Enable your organization to meet internal service-level agreements (SLAs) for mission-critical resources
  • Understand how a resilient IP network can help in delivering mission-critical information such as video and voice services
  • Work with configuration examples that are based on real-world issues and customer requirements
  • Get tips and best practices from field personnel who have worked on some of the largest networks with stringent uptime requirements and SLAs

More companies are building networks with the intention of using them to conduct business. Because the network has become such a strategic business tool, its availability is of utmost importance to companies and their service providers. The challenges for the professionals responsible for these networks include ensuring that the network remains up all the time, keeping abreast of the latest technologies that help maintain uptime, and reacting to ever-increasing denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.


Building Resilient IP Networks helps you meet those challenges. This practical guide to building highly available IP networks captures the essence of technologies that contribute to the uptime of networks. You gain a clear understanding of how to achieve network availability through the use of tools, design strategy, and Cisco IOS® Software.


With Building Resilient IP Networks, you examine misconceptions about five-nines availability and learn to focus your attention on the real issues: appreciating the limitations of the protocols, understanding what has been done to improve them, and keeping abreast of those changes. Building Resilient IP Networks highlights the importance of having a modular approach to building an IP network and, most important, illustrates how a modular design contributes to a resilient network. You learn how an IP network can be broken down to various modules and how these modules interconnect with one another. Then you explore new network resiliency features that have been developed recently, categorized with respect to the design modules.


Building Resilient IP Networks is relevant to both enterprise and service provider customers of all sizes. Regardless of whether the network connects to the Internet, fortifying IP networks for maximum uptime and prevention of attacks is mandatory for anyone’s business.


This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.




Table of Contents




Chapter 1       Rise of the IP Transport System

The Internet Explosion

Next-Generation IP Applications

Voice over IP

IP Storage

MPLS: New Kid on the Block

Next-Generation IP Transport System

Continuous Improvements of Protocols


Chapter 2       Establishing a High-Availability Network

Understanding the Five-Nines Availability Debate

Differentiating Between Reliability and Availability

The Five-Nines Approach

Idiosyncrasies of the Telcordia GR-512-Core Document

The Truth About 50-ms Resiliency

A Practical Approach to Achieving High Availability

Measuring Availability

Defining a Metric

Understanding the Issue of Network Availability

Setting a Strategy to Achieve High Availability

Designing a Network for High Availability

Establishing Continuous Fault Detection and Measurement of Network Availability

Making Full Use of Scheduled Downtime

Instituting a Disciplined Approach to Network Operation and Processes



Chapter 3       Fundamentals of IP Resilient Networks

Revisiting IP, TCP, and UDP

Internet Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol

TCP Three-Way Handshake

TCP Sliding Window

User Datagram Protocol

Device-Level Resiliency

Online Insertion and Removal (OIR)

Single Line Card Reload

High System Availability

Route Processor Redundancy

Route Processor Redundancy Plus

Stateful Switchover

Nonstop Forwarding

Impact of Different Switching Paths

Process Switching

Cisco Express Forwarding Switching

Central CEF

Distributed CEF

Protecting the Control Plane and Data Plane

Establishing a Resiliency Strategy

Redundancy Strategy

Logical Resiliency

Physical Resiliency

Scaling Strategy

Key Principles for Designing Resilient Networks






Chapter 4       Quality of Service

Protecting the Control Plane with QoS

Traffic Types That Affect the Control Plane

Tagging Routing Protocol and Layer 2 Control Packets

IP Precedence

The pak_priority Flag

Selective Packet Discard

Receive ACL

Control-Plane Policing

Protecting Applications with QoS

Understanding the Need for Application QoS




Determining When to Deploy QoS

Scenario 1: Undercongested Link

Scenario 2: Occasionally Congested Link

Scenario 3: Badly Congested Link

Building Blocks of QoS

Classification and Marking

Congestion Avoidance

Congestion Management

Traffic Conditioning

Application QoS and Control-Plane Traffic

QoS Deployment Strategy

Classifying Applications

Defining Policies

Testing Policies

Implementing QoS Features




Chapter 5       Core Module

Network Convergence in the Core

OSPF Enhancements

Shortest Path First (SPF) Throttling

OSPF LSA Throttling

OSPF LSA Flooding Reduction

OSPF Fast Hello

OSPF Update Packet-Pacing Timer

OSPF Incremental SPF

OSPF Graceful Restart

RFC 3623

Cisco Implementation

IS-IS Enhancements

IS-IS SPF Throttling

IS-IS LSP Generation

IS-IS LSA Flooding Reduction

IS-IS Fast Hellos

IS-IS Update Packet-Pacing Timer

IS-IS Incremental SPF

IS-IS Graceful Restart

Cisco Implementation

IETF Implementation

EIGRP Enhancements

EIGRP Graceful Shutdown

EIGRP Graceful Restart

EIGRP Stub Router Functionality

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)

IP Event Dampening

Multipath Routing

Load Balancing

Equal-Cost Multipath (ECMP)

Per Packet

Per Destination

MPLS Traffic Engineering

Fast Reroute Link Protection

Fast Reroute Node Protection

Multicast Subsecond Convergence



Chapter 6       Access Module

Multilayer Campus Design

Access Layer

Distribution Layer

Core Layer

Access Module Building Blocks

Layer 2 Domain

The Spanning Tree Protocol: IEEE 802.1d




Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD)




VLANs and Trunking

Common Spanning Tree (CST)

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST)

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (PVST+)

IEEE 802.1w

IEEE 802.1s

Channeling Technology

Layer 2 Best Practices

Simple Is Better

Limit the Span of VLANs

Build Triangles, Not Squares

Protect the Network from Users

Selecting Root Bridges

Use Value-Added Features

EtherChannel Deployment

EtherChannel Load Balancing

Consistent EtherChannel Port Settings

Layer 2 Setting for EtherChannel

Turning Off Autonegotiation

Layer 3 Domain

Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP)

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

Global Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)

Layer 3 Best Practices

Adopt Topology-Based Switching

Using Equal-Cost Multipath

Conserve Peering Resources

Adopt a Hierarchical Addressing Scheme



Chapter 7       Internet Module

Understanding Addressing and Routing in the Internet Module

Address-Assignment Scheme


Routing for Internal Users

Routing for External Users

Establishing Internet Module Redundancy

Link-Level Redundancy

Device-Level Redundancy

ISP-Level Redundancy

Site-Level Redundancy

Implementing Security Measures

Security Policy

Filtering at the Internet Module

Resilient Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Design

BGP Soft Reconfiguration

BGP Convergence Optimization

BGP Next-Hop Address Tracking

BGP Support for Fast Peering Session Deactivation

BGP Route Dampening

Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO) for BGP

Using Network Address Translation (NAT)

Enhanced NAT Resiliency

NAT with Route Map

Static Mapping with Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) Support

Stateful NAT

Limiting NAT Entries

Multihoming with NAT

Effects of NAT on Network and Applications

Implications on TCP and ICMP Traffic

Application-Specific Gateways

Effects on Voice over IP (VoIP) Traffic

Effects on Router Performance

 Effects on Network Security



Chapter 8       WAN Module

Leased Line

Domestic Leased Circuit Versus International Private Leased Circuit

Leased Circuit Encapsulation

Equal-Cost Load Balancing

Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MPPP)




SONET/SDH Protection Switching

Resilient Packet Ring

DPT Architecture

DPT/SRP Classes of Service

SRP Queuing

SRP Fairness Algorithm

RPR Standards

Differences Between 802.17 and DPT/SRP

Dial Backup

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

IP Tunnel


L2TPv3 Deployment




Chapter 9       Data Center Module

Data Center Environmental Considerations





Rack Space

Server Size


Next-Generation Server Architecture

Data Center Network Considerations


Server Performance

Fault-Tolerant Server Features

Multifaceted Server

Data Center Network Architecture

Access Layer Design

NIC Teaming


Aggregation Layer Design

 Trunk Ports on an Aggregation Switch

 Routed Ports on an Aggregation Switch

Architecture Scaling Consideration

Data Center Network Security

Layer 2 Security

Private VLANs (PVLANs)

VLAN Access Control List (VACL)

Port Security

Dynamic ARP Inspection

Layer 3 Security

Switch Forwarding Architecture

Control Plane Policing

DHCP Server Protection

Service Optimization

Server Load Balancing

Global Site Selector

Understanding DNS Resolution

Using GSS

Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP)

Integrated Service Modules



Chapter 10     Beyond Implemention: Network Managment

Components of Network Management

Fault Management

Configuration Management

Configuration File Management

Inventory Management

Software Management

Accounting Management

 Performance Management

Security Management


User IDs and Passwords


Establishing a Baseline

Step 1: Take a Snapshot of Inventory

Step 2: Collect Relevant Data

MIB Entries and Object Identifiers

Multi-Router Traffic Grapher

Step 3: Analyze Data

Step 4: Prioritize Problem Areas

Step 5: Determine a Course of Action

Managing Cisco IOS Deployment

Overview of IOS Releases

Understanding IOS Naming Convention

IOS Software Life Cycle Management






Moving Toward Proactive Management

IP Service Level Agreement

ICMP-Based IP SLA Operation

Responder-Based IP SLA Operation

Nonresponder-Based IP SLA Operation

Examples of IP SLA Operations

Component Outage Online (COOL) Measurement

Embedded Event Manager (EEM)

Next-Generation IOS Architecture


End Notes


Appendix A   Calculating Network Availability

Appendix BRFCs Relevant to Building a Resilient IP Network

Appendix CThe Cisco Powered Network Checklist