An ontology is a set of vocabulary terms with explicitly stated meanings and relations with other terms. Presently, a growing number of ontologies are being built and used for annotating data in biomedical research. Thanks to the tremendous amount of data being generated, ontologies are now being used in numerous ways, including connecting different databases, refining search capabilities, interpreting experimental/clinical data, and inferring knowledge. This cutting-edge resource introduces researchers to latest developments in bio-ontologies. The book provides the theoretical foundations and examples of ontologies, as well as applications of ontologies in biomedicine, from molecular levels to clinical levels. Readers also find details on technological infrastructure for bio-ontologies. This comprehensive, one-stop volume presents a wide range of practical bio-ontology information, offering professionals detailed guidance in the clustering of biological data, protein classification, gene and pathway prediction, and text mining.