Explorer's Guide to the Semantic Web

Thomas B Passin, Thomas B. Passin

  • 出版商: Manning Publications
  • 出版日期: 2004-03-01
  • 定價: $1,240
  • 售價: 5.0$620
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 300
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 1932394206
  • ISBN-13: 9781932394207

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Description:

A complex set of extensions to the World Wide Web, the Semantic Web will make data and services more accessible to computers and useful to people. Some of these extensions are being deployed, and many are coming in the next years. This is the only book to explore the territory of the Semantic Web in a broad and conceptual manner.

This Guide acquaints you with the basic ideas and technologies of the Semantic Web, their roles and inter-relationships. The key areas covered include knowledge modeling (RDF, Topic Maps), ontology (OWL), agents (intelligent and otherwise), distributed trust and belief, "semantically-focused" search, and much more.

The book's basic, conceptual approach is accessible to readers with a wide range of backgrounds and interests. Important points are illustrated with diagrams and occasional markup fragments. As it explores the landscape it encounters an ever-surprising variety of novel ideas and unexpected links. The book is easy and fun to read - you may find it hard to put down.

The Semantic Web is coming. This is a guide to the basic concepts and technologies that will come with it.

 

Table of Contents:

preface xiii
acknowledgments xv
about this book xvii

1  The Semantic Web   1
1.1 What is the Semantic Web? 3
Indexing and retrieving information 5
Meta data 5
Annotation 6
A huge interoperable database 6
Machine retrieval of data 6
Services 7
Discovery 7
Intelligent agents 8
1.2 Two Semantic Web scenarios 8
Can the Semantic Web work this way? 10
1.3 The Semantic Web’s foundation 10
Resources 11
Standardized addressing 11
Small set of commands 12
Scalability and large networks 12
Openness, completeness, and consistency 13
The Web and the Semantic Web 13
1.4 The Semantic Web layer cake 14
The base 16
Properties and relationships 17
Analysis, verification, and trust 17
1.5 Summary 18
2  Describing data with RDF   19
2.1 Introducing RDF 22
Some terminology 22
Identifying resources 23
Anonymous resources 25
RDF and conventional databases 25
2.2 Working with RDF properties 28
Properties as resources 28
Names, labels, and identifiers 29
Properties of statements 30
2.3 Visualizing statements with RDF graphs 30
Resources with many statements 31
Anonymous nodes 32
Resources as objects of statements 33
Container nodes 34
Graphing properties of statements 35
2.4 Six RDF applications 37
RDF in Mozilla 37
RSS 37
RDF for annotations: Annotea 38
Bibliographic meta data: Dublin Core 39
WebScripter: fusing information 39
Haystack: personal information management 40
2.5 Meshing data and meta data 41
The data model 41
The data in table format 42
The relationships between tables 43
The RDF version of the data 44
Table versions of the data 46
Why bother with RDF? 47
2.6 Sharing data 47
RDF/XML syntax 48
Non-XML formats 56
2.7 RDF in the real world of the Web 56
What does a URI reference indicate? 56
Contradictory statements 58
Incomplete information 58
Limitations 58
2.8 Summary 59
3  Navigating information with topic maps   60
3.1 What are topic maps? 61
An example index 62
The subject of a topic 66
Properties 68
Scopes 69
Summary of key features 70
Collocation, navigation, and representation of information 70
Merging topic maps 71
Maturity of Topic Maps software 72
3.2 Basic models of topic maps 72
Abstract model 73
Implementation approaches 77
3.3 Sharing topic maps between computers 78
3.4 Topic map examples 79
Weather events 80
Conference proceedings 81
3.5 Topic maps and the Web 82
3.6 Topic maps and RDF 84
RDF: information by the atom 84
Topic maps: proteins of knowledge 85
The subject, revisited 85
Theoretical basis 86
Data structures as first-class citizens 86
Strengths and weaknesses 86
3.7 How topic maps are used in practice 87
3.8 Summary 88
4  Annotation   90
4.1 What is annotation? 91
4.2 Annotations at full power 92
4.3 Current web annotation systems 94
Wiki collaboratives 95
Annotea 96
Multivalent browser 99
4.4 Improving annotation 103
4.5 Summary 105
5  Searching   106
5.1 Searching the Web 108
Kinds of searches 108
So near and yet so far 109
Behind the scenes 110
5.2 Search strategies 112
Keywords 112
Ontologies 113
Meta data 114
Semantic analysis 114
Semantic focusing 117
Social analysis 118
Multiple passes 120
Peer to peer 120
Clustering 121
5.3 Distorting results and spoofing search engines 123
5.4 Searching and the Semantic Web 124
Self-describing meta data: no panacea 124
Semantic Web possibilities for improving searching 124
Searching and web services 125
5.5 Summary 126
6  The role of logic   127
6.1 What logic is good for 128
Rules 129
Inferring facts 130
Explanations 131
Contradictions and interpretations 131
Ontologies 133
The representation of knowledge 134
Queries 134
Combining information 135
6.2 All logics aren’t created equal 135
First-order logic: the logic of individual things 136
Second-order logic: the logic of types and relationships 136
Finessing complexity 137
Life beyond first-order logic 137
6.3 Two pitfalls 138
Don’t swallow the whole Web 138
Knowledge pollution 139
6.4 Patchwork quilt or seamless whole? 139
6.5 Summary 140
7  Ontology   141
7.1 Basic classification 143
Lists, hierarchies, and trees 143
Classification groups 145
7.2 Arranging names 148
Names and identifiers 148
Properties 149
7.3 Building ontologies 150
Frameworks 151
On designing ontologies 151
Other considerations 152
7.4 Languages for ontologies 155
RDFS 155
OWL 161
DAML + OIL 168
7.5 Summary 169
8  Semantic Web services   170
8.1 What are web services? 171
Web pages as services 172
Beyond the plain web page 172
How semantic are today’s web services? 173
Elements of web services 173
8.2 Exchanging data 174
Web only? 175
To RDF or not? 175
SOAP 175
RDF with SOAP 177
HTML forms 177
8.3 Invoking services 178
Using HTTP for web services 178
About HTTP messages 178
Remote procedure calls 181
The Web versus RPC 181
The RPC controversy 184
8.4 Describing and finding services 186
Connecting to services 186
Discovering services 194
Describing web service processes 198
8.5 Will web services converge with the Semantic Web? 201
8.6 Summary 202
9  Agents   204
9.1 What is an intelligent agent? 205
9.2 Agents at work 207
9.3 Basic agent types 207
Logic-based agents 208
Reactive agents 209
Belief-desire-intention agents 209
Layered architectures 209
9.4 Agent interactions 210
9.5 Agents on the Semantic Web 212
Beyond factory agents 212
Agent evolution 213
9.6 Frameworks and standards 213
Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents 213
FIPA-OS and other FIPA implementations 215
Java Agent Services 217
9.7 Summary 217
10  Distributed trust and belief   219
10.1 The territory 221
10.2 Tools of trust 222
Private keys 222
Public keys 223
Digests 223
Public Key Infrastructure 223
Digital signing 227
A trust scorecard 228
10.3 Reliable and believable? 229
All statements aren’t equal 230
Handling contradictory information 230
Dealing with information of uncertain reliability 231
10.4 Agents and the Web of Trust 233
10.5 Summary 234
11  Putting it all together   236
11.1 Just what is the Semantic Web? 237
11.2 Scenarios redux 238
The first scenario 238
The second scenario 242
The scenarios in perspective 244
11.3 Some Key Issues 244
Scalability 245
Ontologies—universal or piecework 245
Identity 246
Strong AI and the role of logical reasoning 247
Embedded semantic markup 247
Web services and the Semantic Web 248
Trust, belief, and confidence 248
11.4 How semantic will it be? 249
11.5 Can it really come about? 250
The technology front 250
Plugging in 251
Growing the Semantic Web 254
Appendix  Case studies   256
A.1 FOAF: Friend of a Friend 257
Sharing a bit of yourself 257
A FOAF example 258
Identification without universal IDs 259
Board of a board 260
Lessons 262
A.2 Browser bookmarks 262
Goals for the case study 263
Conventional bookmark managers 263
Modeling the bookmark collection 264
Simple means 268
A.3 Reflections on the case studies 268


references 269
index 275