Organic Electronics: Materials, Manufacturing, and Applications

Hagen Klauk

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2006-07-21
  • 售價: $7,440
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$7,068
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 446
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 3527312641
  • ISBN-13: 9783527312641
  • 海外代購書籍(需單獨結帳)
    無現貨庫存(No stock available)




Edited and written by the leading researchers and engineers from such companies as Philips, 3M, Xerox, Infineon, PlasticLogic, Eastman Kodak, Dupont, AIXTRON, and Hueck Folien, this book presents unrivalled and undiluted expertise from those who know best how to assess the risks, opportunities and where this technology is really heading.

As such, this practical approach complements the more scientific and fundamentals-oriented literature on the market by providing readers with a first-hand insight into industrial activities to commercialize organic electronics. Following an introduction to the topic, including the history, motivation, benefits and potentials, it reviews recent advances and covers all three important facets of organic electronics: the chemical compounds and materials, manufacturing techniques, and the resulting devices together with their current applications.


Table of Contents


Author List.

I Introduction.

1 Organic Transistors (Gilles Horowitz).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Overview of the Organic Thin-film Transistor.

1.2.1 Are Organic "Semiconductors" Real Semiconductors?

1.2.2 Thin-film Transistor Architecture.

1.2.3 Operating Mode.

1.2.4 Thickness of the Channel.

1.3 Contact Resistance.

1.3.1 Contact Resistance Extraction.

1.3.2 Origin of Contact Resistance.

1.4 Charge Transport.

1.5 Fabrication Techniques.

1.6 The Materials.

1.6.1 Polymers.

1.6.2 Small Molecules.

1.6.3 n-Type Semiconductors.

1.6.4 Single Crystals.

1.6.5 Insulators.

1.7 Concluding Remarks.



II Advanced Materials for Organic Electronics.

2 High-performance Pentacene Transistors (Tommie Kelley).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Routes to Performance Improvement.

2.2.1 Purification.

2.2.2 Device Evolution.

2.2.3 Structural Perfection.

2.2.4 Device Architecture.

2.2.5 Interfacial Control.

2.3 Structure–Property Relationships.

2.4 Continuing Reports of High Mobilities.

2.5 Performance in Practice.

2.6 The Future of High-performance Organic Transistors.


3 Engineered Pentacenes (John E. Anthony).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Reversible Functionalization.

3.3 2,3,9,10-Tetrasubstituted and 2,3-Disubstituted Pentacenes: End-substituted Derivatives.

3.4 Peri-functionalized Pentacene.

3.5 Pentacene Functionalized at Both peri and End Positions.

3.6 Heteropentacenes.

3.7 Conclusion.


4 Organic Semiconductors Based on Polythiophene and Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (Beng S. Ong, Yiliang Wu, and Yuning Li).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Issues and Challenges.

4.3 Structural Considerations.

4.4 Polythiophene Semiconductors.

4.4.1 High-performance Polythiophene Design.

4.4.2 Polydialkylterthiophenes.

4.4.3 Polydialkylquaterthiophenes.

4.4.4 Polythiophene Nanoparticles.

4.4.5 Inkjet Patterned TFT Arrays.

4.5 Indocarbazole Designs.

4.6 Summary and Prospects.



5 Electrical and Environmental Stability of Polymer Thin-film Transistors (Alberto Salleo and Michael L. Chabinyc).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Charge Trapping in TFTs.

5.2.1 General Considerations.

5.2.2 Bias Stress in Organic Transistors.

5.3 Bias Stress in Polyfluorene and Polythiophene TFTs.

5.3.1 Reversible Bias Stress.

5.3.2 Long-lived Bias Stress.

5.3.3 Dependence of Bias Stress on Operating Conditions; Lifetime Predictions.

5.3.4 A Microscopic Theory of Bias Stress.

5.4 Chemical Effects on Stability – Defects and Impurities.

5.4.1 Introduction.

5.4.2 Defects in Molecular Structure. Defects from Synthesis. Photo-induced Defects. Thermochemical Analysis. Oxygen. Water. Organic Solvents. Inorganic Impurities.

5.4.3 Impurities.

5.4.4 Studies of TFT Lifetime.

5.5 Conclusion.



6 Gate Dielectrics (Marcus Halik).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 The Impact of Gate Dielectrics on the Electrical Functionality of Organic TFTs.

6.3 Insulating Materials – An Overview.

6.3.1 Inorganic Gate Dielectrics.

6.3.2 Polymer Gate Dielectrics.

6.3.3 Self-Assembled Monolayer Gate Dielectrics.

6.3.4 Multi-layer and Multi-component Gate Dielectrics.

6.3.5 Multifunctional Dielectrics.

6.4 Application-related Aspects of Dielectrics.

6.4.1 Poly-4-vinylphenol Dielectrics.

6.4.2 The Self-assembled Monolayer Approach.


7 Advanced Flexible Polymeric Substrates (William A. MacDonald).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Polyester Substrates.

7.3 Properties of Base Substrates.

7.3.1 Optical Properties.

7.3.2 Birefringence.

7.3.3 Thermal Properties.

7.3.4 Solvent Resistance.

7.3.5 Surface Quality.

7.3.6 Mechanical Properties.

7.3.7 Summary of Key Properties of Base Substrates.

7.4 Multilayer Structures.

7.5 Film in Application.



III Manufacturing for Organic Electronics.

8 Reel-to-reel Vacuum Metallization (Roland Treutlein, Martin Bergsmann, and Carl J. Stonley).

8.1 Reel-to-reel Vacuum Metallization.

8.1.1 The Metallization Process. Evaporation Sources. Pretreatment and Cleaning of the Web Substrate. PVD Process Flow. Typical Process Times, Rates, and Quantities. Transfer Metallization. Pattern-evaporated Layers.

8.1.2 Properties of the Evaporated Layer. Structure. Layer Thickness (Conductivity). Barrier. Light Barrier.

8.1.3 Environmental Benefits of Vacuum Evaporated Layers.

8.1.4 Applications of Metallized Films. Barrier Packaging. Decorative Applications. Functional Layers. Polymer Electronic Substrates.

8.1.5 Market Analysis.


9 Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (Michael Heuken and Nico Meyer).

9.1 Introduction.

9.1.1 The Principle of OVPD.

9.1.2 Close Coupled Showerhead Technology.

9.2 Deposition of Organic Thin Films.

9.2.1 Process Control in OVPD.

9.2.2 Co-deposition and Doping in OVPD.

9.2.3 Controlled Morphology and Layer Interfaces in OVPD.

9.3 Electronic Devices by OVPD.

9.3.1 OLEDs Made by OVPD.

9.3.2 Organic Photovoltaics by OVPD.

9.3.3 Organic Thin-film Transistors by OVPD.

9.4 Full-color OLED Displays.

9.4.1 Micropatterning by use of Shadow Masks.

9.4.2 Mask-less Processes.

9.5 Material Properties of Organic Molecules for Use in OVPD.

9.6 Summary.



10 Thermal Imaging and Micro-contact Printing (Hee Hyun Lee, John Rogers, and Graciela Blanchet).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Building Blocks.

10.3 Printing and Patterning Techniques.

10.3.1 Thermal Imaging.

10.3.2 Printed Devices: From TFTs to Large-area Backplanes.

10.4 Printable Materials.

10.4.1 Polyaniline Nanotube Composites: A High-resolution Printable Conductor.

10.5 Micro-contact Printing.

10.5.1 Contact Printing with High-resolution Stamps. High-resolution Stamps.

10.5.2 Micro-contact Printing.

10.5.3 Nanotransfer Printing.

10.6 Large Area Stamps, Molds, and Photomasks for Soft Lithography.

10.6.1 Micro-contact Printing: A Path to Reel-to-reel Electronics.

10.6.2 Inexpensive Approaches to Large-area Printing.

10.6.3 Registration Using the Lock-and-key Mechanism in Soft Imprinting.

10.7 Conclusions.



11 Thin-film Transistor Fabrication by Digital Lithography (William S. Wong, Jürgen H. Daniel, Michael L. Chabinyc, Ana Claudia Arias, Steven E. Ready, and René Lujan).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Jet-printed Patterning for Thin-film Transistor Processing.

11.2.1 Introduction.

11.2.2 Jet-printed Phase-change Etch Masks.

11.3 Digital Lithography.

11.3.1 Digital Lithography for TFT Device Fabrication.

11.3.2 Thin-film Transistor Device Structures. Amorphous Silicon TFTs. Polymeric TFTs by Digital Lithography.

11.3.3 Thin-film Transistor Device Characteristics. a-Si:H TFTs. Printed Polymeric TFTs.

11.4 TFTs on Flexible Substrates.

11.4.1 Introduction.

11.4.2 TFT Pixel Design Considerations.

11.4.3 Digital Lithography for Flexible Backplanes.

11.5 Display Applications with Print-patterned Backplanes.

11.6 Conclusions.



12 Manufacturing of Organic Transistor Circuits by Solution-based Printing (Henning Sirringhaus, Christoph W. Sele, Timothy von Werne, and Catherine Ramsdale).

12.1 Introduction to Printed Organic Thin Film Transistors.

12.2 Overview of Printing-based Manufacturing Approaches for OTFTs.

12.2.1 Screen Printing.

12.2.2 Offset Printing.

12.2.3 Gravure Printing.

12.2.4 Flexography.

12.2.5 Inkjet Printing.

12.2.6 Laser-based Dry-printing Techniques.

12.2.7 Other Nonlithographic Manufacturing Approaches.

12.3 High-resolution, Self-aligned Inkjet Printing.

12.3.1 Self-aligned Printing by Selective Surface Treatment.

12.3.2 Self-aligned Printing by Surface Segregation.

12.3.3 Self-aligned Printing by Autophobing.

12.4 Performance and Reliability of Solution-processed OTFTs for Applications in Flexible Displays.

12.5 Conclusions.



IV Devices, Applications, and Products.

13 From Transistors to Large-scale Integrated Circuits (Gerwin H. Gelinck, Erik van Veenendaal, Eduard J. Meijer, Eugenio Cantatore, H. Edzer A. Huitema, Pieter van Lieshout, Fred J. Touwslager, Alwin W. Marsman, and Dago M. de Leeuw).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Discrete Devices.

13.2.1 Basic Device Operation of Organic Transistor.

13.2.2 Current–Voltage Characteristics.

13.2.3 Capacitance–Voltage Characteristics.

13.3 Fabrication and Characterization of Integrated Circuits.

13.3.1 Fabrication.

13.3.2 Modeling.

13.3.3 Analysis of Inverters.

13.3.4 Analysis of Integrated Circuits.



14 Roll-up Active-matrix Displays (H. Edzer A. Huitema, Gerwin H. Gelinck, Erik van Veenendaal, Fred J. Touwslager, and Pieter J. G. van Lieshout).

14.1 Introduction.

14.1.1 Non-rigid Display Research and Development Overview.

14.2 Rollable Active-matrix Backplane Technology.

14.3 Roll-up Active-matrix Backplane Design.

14.3.1 Field-effect Mobility Effects.

14.3.2 Leakage Current Effects.

14.4 The Electronic Ink Film.

14.5 Roll-up Display Integration.

14.6 Functional Active-matrix Roll-up Displays.

14.7 Roll-up Display Device Concepts.

14.8 Towards a System-on-plastic: Driver Integration.

14.8.1 Row Driver Integration.

14.8.2 Stand-alone Shift Registers.

14.8.3 Integrated Shift Registers.



15 Active-matrix Light-emitting Displays (Shelby F. Nelson and Lisong Zhou).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 OLED Pixel Differences from LCDs.

15.3 Complex Pixel Design.

15.4 Practical Design.

15.5 AIM–SPICE Simulation of Pentacene TFT-driven OLEDs.

15.6 Fabrication Process.

15.7 Device Passivation.

15.8 PVA and Parylene.

15.9 Pentacene TFT Uniformity.

15.10 Stability.

15.11 Integration of TFTs and OLEDs.

15.12 Flexible OLED Display.

15.13 Substrate Selection and Mounting.

15.14 Thermal Dimensional Stability.

15.15 Surface Quality.

15.16 Chemical Resistance.

15.17 Fabrication Process.

15.18 Display Results.

15.19 Conclusion.


16 Large-area Detectors and Sensors (Takao Someya and Takayasu Sakurai).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Large-area Pressure Sensors.

16.3 Organic Transistor-based Integrated Circuits.

16.4 Bending Experiments of Organic Transistors.

16.5 High-temperature Operation of Organic Transistors.

16.6 Sheet Image Scanners.

16.7 Three-dimensional Integrated Circuits.

16.8 Future Prospects of Large-area Electronics.

16.9 Remaining Issues.

16.10 Conclusions.



17 Organic Semiconductor-based Chemical Sensors (Howard E. Katz and Jia Huang).

17.1 Background.

17.2 Inorganic and Nanostrctured Semiconductor Sensors.

17.3 Sensitive Organic Field-effect Transistors.

17.4 Mechanistic Rationale.

17.5 Conclusion.