Modern Control Theory

Zdzislaw Bubnicki

  • 出版商: Springer
  • 出版日期: 2005-07-26
  • 售價: $1,150
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,093
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 424
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 1852338733
  • ISBN-13: 9783540239512

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商品描述

Description

This compact and uniform textbook presents the contemporary state of the art of control theory and its applications. It introduces traditional problems useful in the automatic control of technical processes, as well as current issues, such as decision taking in conditions of uncertainty, use of artificial intelligence methods, or control of complex operations. The methods covered are introduced in a practice-oriented way that allows the reader to easily apply them for the determination of decision algorithms in computer control and management systems. This concise textbook is aimed at students of automatics, robotics, control engineering, and computer sciences.

 

Table of contents


1 General Characteristic of Control Systems...............................................1
1.1 Subject and Scope of Control Theory................................................1
1.2 Basic Terms .......................................................................................2
1.2.1 Control Plant ...............................................................................4
1.2.2 Controller ....................................................................................6
1.3 Classification of Control Systems......................................................7
1.3.1 Classification with Respect to Connection Between Plant and
Controller .............................................................................................7
1.3.2 Classification with Respect to Control Goal...............................9
1.3.3 Other Cases ...............................................................................11
1.4 Stages of Control System Design ....................................................13
1.5 Relations Between Control Science and Related Areas in Science
and Technology .....................................................................................14
1.6 Character, Scope and Composition of the Book..............................15

2 Formal Models of Control Systems ........................................................17
2.1 Description of a Signal ....................................................................17
2.2 Static Plant .......................................................................................18
2.3 Continuous Dynamical Plant ...........................................................19
2.3.1 State Vector Description...........................................................20
2.3.2 “Input-output” Description by Means of Differential Equation24
2.3.3 Operational Form of “Input-output” Description......................25
2.4 Discrete Dynamical Plant ................................................................29
2.5 Control Algorithm ...........................................................................31
2.6 Introduction to Control System Analysis.........................................33
2.6.1 Continuous System...................................................................35
2.6.2 Discrete System........................................................................37

3 Control for the Given State (the Given Output)......................................41
3.1 Control of a Static Plant...................................................................41
3.2 Control of a Dynamical Plant. Controllability.................................44
3.3 Control of a Measurable Plant in the Closed-loop System.............47
3.4 Observability....................................................................................50
VIII Contents
3.5 Control with an Observer in the Closed-loop System .....................55
3.6 Structural Approach.........................................................................59
3.7 Additional Remarks .........................................................................62

4 Optimal Control with Complete Information on the Plant .....................65
4.1 Control of a Static Plant...................................................................65
4.2 Problems of Optimal Control for Dynamical Plants........................69
4.2.1 Discrete Plant ............................................................................69
4.2.2 Continuous Plant.......................................................................72
4.3 Principle of Optimality and Dynamic Programming .......................74
4.4 Bellman Equation ............................................................................79
4.5 Maximum Principle .........................................................................85
4.6 Linear-quadratic Problem................................................................93

5 Parametric Optimization.........................................................................97
5.1 General Idea of Parametric Optimization ........................................97
5.2 Continuous Linear Control System..................................................99
5.3 Discrete Linear Control System.....................................................105
5.4 System with the Measurement of Disturbances.............................107
5.5 Typical Forms of Control Algorithms in Closed-loop Systems ....110
5.5.1 Linear Controller.....................................................................111
5.5.2 Two-position Controller .........................................................112
5.5.3 Neuron-like Controller............................................................112
5.5.4 Fuzzy Controller .....................................................................113

6 Application of Relational Description of Uncertainty.........................117
6.1 Uncertainty and Relational Knowledge Representation ................117
6.2 Analysis Problem...........................................................................122
6.3 Decision Making Problem.............................................................127
6.4 Dynamical Relational Plant ...........................................................130
6.5 Determinization .............................................................................136

7 Application of Probabilistic Descriptions of Uncertainty.....................143
7.1 Basic Problems for Static Plant and Parametric Uncertainty........143
7.2 Basic Problems for Static Plant and Non-parametric Uncertainty152
7.3 Control of Static Plant Using Results of Observations..................157
7.3.1 Indirect Approach ...................................................................158
7.3.2 Direct Approach......................................................................164
7.4 Application of Games Theory........................................................165
7.5 Basic Problem for Dynamical Plant...............................................170
7.6 Stationary Stochastic Process ........................................................174
IX
7.7 Analysis and Parametric Optimization of Linear Closed-loop
Control System with Stationary Stochastic Disturbances....................178
7.8 Non-parametric Optimization of Linear Closed-loop Control System
with Stationary Stochastic Disturbances..............................................183
7.9 Relational Plant with Random Parameter ......................................188

8 Uncertain Variables and Their Applications.........................................193
8.1 Uncertain Variables .......................................................................193
8.2 Application of Uncertain Variables to Analysis and Decision
Making (Control) for Static Plant ........................................................201
8.2.1 Parametric Uncertainty ...........................................................201
8.2.2 Non-parametric Uncertainty ...................................................205
8.3 Relational Plant with Uncertain Parameter....................................211
8.4 Control for Dynamical Plants. Uncertain Controller .....................216

9 Fuzzy Variables, Analogies and Soft Variables ...................................221
9.1 Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Numbers.....................................................221
9.2 Application of Fuzzy Description to Decision Making (Control) for
Static Plant ...........................................................................................228
9.2.1 Plant without Disturbances .....................................................228
9.2.2 Plant with External Disturbances............................................233
9.3 Comparison of Uncertain Variables with Random and Fuzzy
Variables ..............................................................................................238
9.4 Comparisons and Analogies for Non-parametric Problems ..........242
9.5 Introduction to Soft Variables........................................................246
9.6 Descriptive and Prescriptive Approaches. Quality of Decisions ...249
9.7 Control for Dynamical Plants. Fuzzy Controller ...........................255

10 Control in Closed-loop System. Stability ...........................................259
10.1 General Problem Description.......................................................259
10.2 Stability Conditions for Linear Stationary System......................264
10.2.1 Continuous System...............................................................264
10.2.2 Discrete System....................................................................266
10.3 Stability of Non-linear and Non-stationary Discrete Systems .....270
10.4 Stability of Non-linear and Non-stationary Continuous Systems 277
10.5 Special Case. Describing Function Method.................................278
10.6 Stability of Uncertain Systems. Robustness ................................282
10.7 An Approach Based on Random and Uncertain Variables..........291
10.8 Convergence of Static Optimization Process...............................295

11 Adaptive and Learning Control Systems ............................................299
11.1 General Concepts of Adaptation..................................................299
X Contents
11.2 Adaptation via Identification for Static Plant ..............................303
11.3 Adaptation via Identification for Dynamical Plant ......................309
11.4 Adaptation via Adjustment of Controller Parameters..................311
11.5 Learning Control System Based on Knowledge of the Plant.......313
11.5.1 Knowledge Validation and Updating....................................314
11.5.2 Learning Algorithm for Decision Making in Closed-loop
System..............................................................................................317
11.6 Learning Control System Based on Knowledge of Decisions....319
11.6.1 Knowledge Validation and Updating....................................319
11.6.2 Learning Algorithm for Control in Closed-loop System......321

12 Intelligent and Complex Control Systems ..........................................327
12.1 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence ..........................................327
12.2 Logical Knowledge Representation.............................................328
12.3 Analysis and Decision Making Problems ....................................332
12.4 Logic-algebraic Method...............................................................334
12.5 Neural Networks ..........................................................................341
12.6 Applications of Neural Networks in Control Systems.................346
12.6.1 Neural Network as a Controller ............................................346
12.6.2 Neural Network in Adaptive System....................................348
12.7 Decomposition and Two-level Control........................................349
12.8 Control of Complex Plant with Cascade Structure ......................355
12.9 Control of Plant with Two-level Knowledge Representation......358

13 Control of Operation Systems.............................................................363
13.1 General Characteristic..................................................................363
13.2 Control of Task Distribution........................................................365
13.3 Control of Resource Distribution.................................................371
13.4 Control of Assignment and Scheduling .......................................375
13.5 Control of Allocation in Systems with Transport ........................382
13.6 Control of an Assembly Process..................................................386
13.7 Application of Relational Description and Uncertain Variables .391
13.8 Application of Neural Network ...................................................398

Conclusions..............................................................................................401
Appendix..................................................................................................405
References................................................................................................411
Index ........................................................................................................419