The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, 4/e

Annabel Z. Dodd

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Table of Contents:

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Author

I. FUNDAMENTALS AND VOICE OVER IP.

1. Basic Concepts.

    The Transition to Digital

      Analog Signals-Slower, More Prone to Errors

      Digital Signals

    Adding Meaning to Signals-Codes and Bits   

      A Byte = A Character

      Baud Rate Versus Bits per Second-Electrical Signal Rates Versus Amount of Information Sent

      Codes-Adding Meaning to Bits

    Measuring Speed and Capacity

      Broadband Service-Multiple Data Streams

    Improving Utilization-Compression and Multiplexing

      Compression-Shrinking Data to Send More Information

      Multiplexing-Let's Share

    Interoperability-Protocols and Architectures

      Protocols-A Common Set of Rules

      Architectures-How Devices Fit Together in a Network

    Types of Networks-LANs, MANs, and WANs

      LANs-Local Area Networks

      LAN and WAN Devices-Higher Speeds, Lower Prices

      Home LANs-Sharing High-Speed Internet Access

      MANs-Metropolitan Area Networks . . . Links Within Cities

      WANs-Wide Area Networks . . . Links Between Cities

      Higher Speed Services for LAN Traffic

      Carrier and Internet Service Provider Networks

    Appendix

2. VoIP Systems, Circuit Switched PBXs and Cabling.

    Telephone Systems-Voice over IP, PBXs, and Centrex Systems

      What Is a Private Branch Exchange (PBX)?

    IP PBXs for the Enterprise

      Impetus for Change

      Architecture of IP-Based Systems . . . How the Pieces Fit Together

      Voice Quality and Security

      Barriers to Acceptance of Voice over IP

      Endpoints-IP Telephones Connected to Layer 2 Switches

      PBX Trunks-Switch-to-Switch Connectivity

      Demarcation-The Location at Which Telcos Wire Trunks

      Circuit Switched PBXs-Proprietary Platforms

      Centrex-Telephone Company Supplied Service

      IP Centrex-Phone Companies Hosting Voice Over IP

      Direct Inward Dialing-Bypassing the Operator for Incoming Calls

      Key Systems-Multi-featured for Smaller Organizations

      Hybrid PBX/Key Systems

      Wireless Options for PBXs

    Advanced Applications for Telephone Systems

      Call Accounting-Billing Internal Departments

      Call Detail Recording for Carriers-Generating Data for Billing

      Voice Mail-Storing and Retrieving Messages

      Voice Mail Components

      Unified Messaging Integration of Voice Mail, Fax Mail, and E-mail

      Unified Messaging Systems on the LAN

      Multi-application Platforms in Carrier Networks

      Speech Recognition

II. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW AND PUBLIC NETWORKS.

3. Industry Overview.

    The Bell System after the 1984 Divestiture

      Divestiture of the Bell System from AT&T in 1984

      The Decline of AT&T

      Independent Telephone Companies- Mostly in Rural Areas

    The Emergence of Local Competition Prior to 1996

      Competitive Access Providers (CAPs) to Bypass Access Fees

      Uneven Competition for Local Telephone Service Throughout the U.S.

      The Critical Nature of Facilities

      Factors Leading to Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996

      Wireless Services for Local Exchange Service-Spectrum Auctions

    The Telecommunications Act of 1996

      Universal Service Fund-Affordability and Availability

    Post Telecommunications Act of 1996 Developments

      FCC Rulings, Legal Challenges, and Progress Toward Deregulation

      FCC Enforcement of Access to Local Networks after Bells Gain In-Region Long Distance

    Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996

    State of the Industry . . . Key Segments

      Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) Post-1996 Mergers

      Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs)

      Agents

      Resellers

      Wholesale Carriers-Carrier-to-Carrier Sales

    CLECs-A Dwindling Industry Segment

      CLECs-Local, Data, and Long Distance Services

      Pending Purchase of AT&T and MCI-The Impact of Consolidation

      Shrinking Numbers of Competitors-Financial Turmoil

      What Went Wrong?

    Intermodal Competition-Cable TV, Wireless, and Utilities

      Cable TV Multiple Service Operators (MSOs)-Wired to the Max

      Mobile Wireless Services

      Utilities-The Third Pipe

    Regulatory Issues

      Unbundled Network Elements (UNEs)-Competitors Leasing Parts of RBOCs' Networks

      The Impact of Higher Leasing Rates

      Regulating Cable Modems-Cable, Information, or Telecommunications Services?

      Voice Over IP-Regulatory Issues

      Access Fees-A Shift in Balance Between Local and Long Distance Costs

    Appendix

4. VoIP, the Public Switched Telephone Network, and Signaling.

    Convergence in Public Networks

      Circuit Switching-Network Inefficiencies and Convergence

      Impediments to Adoption-Training, Embedded Assets, User Adoption, and Fear of the Unknown

      VoIP Networks-Putting the Pieces Together

      Softswitches-Standards-Based Platforms for Call Control

      Media Gateways (Border Elements)-Switching and Interoperability Between Networks

      Peer-to-Peer Music, Instant Messaging, Online Games, and VoIP

      Outsourcing-The Role of IP

    Voice Over Broadband for Residential Consumers

      Voice Over IP Service in Homes

      Customer Acquisition-Agents, Retail Outlets, and Amazon.com

    Document Sharing and Online Webconferencing

      Webconferencing to Share Documents

    The Public Switched Telephone Network

    Switched Services-Local and Long Distance Calling

      Attributes of Real-Time Switching Services

      Store-and-Forward Switching-Nonsimultaneous Sending and Receiving

     "The Last Mile" or Access Networks

      End and Tandem Central Offices

      Wireless Local Loop-Low Customer Acceptance

      Broadband Over Power Lines-Telephone Signals Over the Same Fiber that Carries Electricity

      Carrier Hotels-Interconnecting Carriers and Providing Secure Space for Equipment

      Interconnections Between Carriers-Transport

    Signaling-The Glue that Holds the PSTN Together  

      Overview of Signaling-Uniform Signaling Developed by AT&T

      Signaling System 7-Links Between Carriers

      SS7 Components

5. VPNs and Specialized Network Services.

    Virtual Private Networks-Remote Access and Interoffice Connections

      Rationale for Virtual Private Networks Between Offices

      Productivity Away from the Office-VPNs for Remote Access

      Virtual Private Network Technology

      Security-Firewalls, Protection Against Viruses, and Other Attacks

    Frame Relay-A Shared Wide Area Network Service

      Access to Frame Relay-56 Kilobits to T-3

      Frame Relay to Access Other Networks

      Frame Relay Service-Permanent Virtual Circuits and Committed Information Rate

      Voice on Frame Relay-Instead of Private Lines

    Dedicated, Private Lines

      Dedicated Services-Wide and Metropolitan Area Networks

      Network Topologies-How Sites Are Connected

    T-1-24 Paths and T-3-672 Paths Over One Telephone Circuit

      T-1: 1,544,000bps; E-1: 2,048,000bps Speeds

      T-3, J-3, and E-3-North America, Japan, and the Rest of the World

      A Fat Pipe for Data-Unchannelized T-1

      T-1 Inefficiencies-Time Slots Running on Empty

      CSU/DSUs-Digital Modems: Testing and Clocking

    ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network

      Basic Rate Interface ISDN-Higher Usage in Europe and Japan Than the United States

      Primary Rate Interface ISDN-23 Bearer and One Signaling Channel

      NT1s and TAs: Modem-Like Devices for ISDN

    Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)-An Interim Technology or a Vehicle for Video and IP?

      The DSL Marketplace

      Business Class DSL-Static IP Addresses

      DSLAMs-Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers

      Television Over DSL Service-ADSL2+ and VDSL2

      DSL-No Truck Roll; Self Service

    Gigabit Ethernet

      Ethernet Sales Channels

      Challenges to Wider Deployment

      Multiplexers Equipped with Reconfigurable Optical Add and Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs)

      Ethernet Enterprise Service-Internet, VPN Access, and Private Lines

    ATM-Asynchronous Transfer Mode

      ATM's Speed Is Due to Three Characteristics

      DSLAMs and ATM-Oversubscription

      Mapping IP and Ethernet Traffic onto ATM

      Elements of an ATM Network

    SONET-Synchronous Optical Network

      Optical Carrier (OC): North American; Synchronous Transport Mode (STM): International

      SONET Rings-For Greater Reliability

      Second Generation-Next Generation SONET

      SONET with Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Capability

      Third Generation SONET-Connectivity to Ethernet

      SONET Offerings for Enterprises

    Summary

    Appendix

III. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, CABLE TV NETWORKS, AND THE INTERNET.

6. Entertainment, Cable TV, and Last-Mile Fiber Systems.

    Cable Multiple System Operators (MSOs)

      Cable TV Architecture-Upgrades, Capacity, Speed, and Reliability

      Cable TV Offerings

      Set-Top Boxes-Interfaces to Satellite TV and Cable TV

    Direct Broadcast Satellite TV-Reaching Customers Wirelessly

    Broadcast, Over-the-Air Television

      Towers-Terrestrial Wireless Transmissions

      Affiliates-Transmitting Programming to Consumers

      Digital Television-Less Spectrum Used, Improved Quality

      Digital Cable TV-Lower Resolution Than HDTV

      Digital TV Standards Worldwide

    Digital Delivery-Entertainment over the Internet

      U.S. Postal Mail with E-commerce for Movie Delivery

    Digital Radio-Subscription Versus Advertising Support

      HD Radio--High Definition Radio

    Passive Optical Networking

      PONs-Fiber to the Premises, Curb, Basement, or Neighborhood; FTTx

      Passive Optical Network Standards

7. The Internet.

    The Evolution of the Internet

      UNIX, Telnet, and File Transfer Protocol

      World Wide Web-Based on the Client Server Model

      Internet Advisory Boards

      Peering-To Exchange Data Between Carriers

      ISPs: With Software Platforms for Enhanced Offerings

      Hosting-Outsourcing Web Pages

    Messaging and the Growth of Spam

      Multimedia Attachments-Photographs, Movies, and PowerPoint

      E-mail Formatted in HTML-Another Vehicle for the Spread of Viruses

      Spam-Clogging Inboxes with Junk Mail

      Interactivity Tools: Usenet, Chat, Mailing Lists, and Blogging

    Internet Addresses

      Registries-Management of Entire Top-Level Domains

      Registrars-Assigning Domain Names to Organizations

      Thirteen Root Servers Worldwide-The Basis for Internet Routing

      Assignments of Numeric IP Addresses to ISPs and Carriers

      Public and Private IP Addresses

    Portals, Search Engines, and E-commerce

      Portals-The Door to the Internet

      Search Engines-Vehicles for Advertising Revenue

    Electronic Commerce

      Advertising on the Web-Instant Access to Offers

      Popular E-commerce Sites

      Privacy Concerns, Commerce, and National Security

      Freedom of Speech, Access to Information, and Protection of Children

    Intranets and Extranets

      Intranets-Web Technology for Corporate Access

      Extranets-Web Access for Customers, Partners, and Vendors

IV. WIRELESS SERVICE.

8. Mobile Services.

    The Development of Cellular Networks

      Cellular, Wireless, Cordless, and Mobile

      Precellular Mobile Networks

      First Generation Analog Cellular-Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)

      Second Generation Digital Mobile Air Interfaces

    Spectrum and Rights to Airwaves

      Frequency

      Ranges of Frequency-Spectrum Blocks

      Spectrum Caps-Limiting the Amount of Spectrum Per Carrier

      Allocation

      Implication of Spectrum Ranges

      Spectrum for Higher-Speed 3G Services

      Unlicensed Spectrum for 802.11 and WiMAX

      Multiband Versus Multimode

    Mobile Carriers

      The United States

      Europe

      China

      India

    The Structure of Second Generation Digital Mobile Networks

      A Cell Site-Connections Between Customers and Mobile Networks

      Switching and Signaling

      Coverage Gaps-Rural Locales, Inside Buildings, and Congested Metropolitan Areas

      Number Portability-Wireless to Wireless and Wireline to Wireless

      Roaming Using Mobile Devices in Other Networks

      Push-to-Talk-Mobile Walkie-Talkie Service

      Enhanced 911

      The Criticality of Mobile Networks-Emergency Preparedness

    Evolving to Third Generation Packet Networks

      Comparing Third Generation Technologies

      The Transition to WCDMA-GPRS and Then EDGE

      WCDMA-Wideband Code Division Multiplexing

      The Evolution to CDMA2000 1X (Voice and Data) and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Data Optimized-High Data Rate)

      3G Compatible Handsets-Multimode Capabilities for Roaming

      The Path to IP Converged 3G Networks

      802.20: IP Mobile Broadband Wireless Access-MobileFi 

      Mobile Networks for Video-Using Incompatible Technologies

    Mobile Commerce, Enhanced Services, and Operating Systems

      The Battle for Operating System Dominance

      Camera Phones

      Ring-Back Tones-Mobile Music Instead of Ringing

      Mobile Commerce-Mobile Devices to Make Purchases

      The IP Multimedia System and Interoperable Multimedia

      3G Applications for Enterprises

    Specialized Mobile Radio-Slow-Speed Packet Data and Push-to-Talk

      Specialized Mobile Radio-Packetized Data Networks for Two-Way E-mail and Field Services

    Satellites and Paging

      Satellite Networks

      Satellite Telephones-For Emergencies and Remote Areas

      VSAT Service-Small Satellite Dishes

      Paging Services

9. Wi-Fi, Wireless Broadband, Sensor Networks, and Personal Area Networks.

    802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

      The Terms 802.11, WLAN, and Wi-Fi

      The Criticality of Standards

      The Main Standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

      802.11n-Improving Range (Area Covered), Capacity, and Data Rates

      WLAN Infrastructure: Access Points and Switches

      In Enterprises

      Hotspots-Wi-Fi Inside Public Places

      In Homes-To Avoid Running Cables

      Wi-Fi Networks for Voice Over IP (VoIP)

      Managing Security on WLANs

      Compared to 3G: Mobility, Coverage, and Data Rates

    Broadband Wireless Access

      WiMAX: Broadband Access, Based on 802.16

      Adapting 3G for Wireless Broadband Access: UMTS TDD and WCDMA

    Personal Area Networks (PANs)

      Bluetooth

      Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

      Ultra-Wideband-High-Speed, Short Distance Links

    Sensor Networks-The 802.15.4 Standard

      ZigBee-A Protocol For Sensor Networks

    Appendix

Glossary.

Bibliography.

Index.