Managing Technical Debt: Reducing Friction in Software Development

Kruchten, Philippe, Nord, Robert, Ozkaya, Ipek



"This is an incredibly wise and useful book. The authors have considerable real-world experience in delivering quality systems that matter, and their expertise shines through in these pages. Here you will learn what technical debt is, what is it not, how to manage it, and how to pay it down in responsible ways. This is a book I wish I had when I was just beginning my career. The authors present a myriad of case studies, born from years of experience, and offer a multitude of actionable insights for how to apply it to your project."
-Grady Booch, IBM Fellow
Master Best Practices for Managing Technical Debt to Promote Software Quality and Productivity
As software systems mature, earlier design or code decisions made in the context of budget or schedule constraints increasingly impede evolution and innovation. This phenomenon is called technical debt, and practical solutions exist. In Managing Technical Debt, three leading experts introduce integrated, empirically developed principles and practices that any software professional can use to gain control of technical debt in any software system.

Using real-life examples, the authors explain the forms of technical debt that afflict software-intensive systems, their root causes, and their impacts. They introduce proven approaches for identifying and assessing specific sources of technical debt, limiting new debt, and "paying off" debt over time. They describe how to establish managing technical debt as a core software engineering practice in your organization.

  • Discover how technical debt damages manageability, quality, productivity, and morale-and what you can do about it
  • Clarify root causes of debt, including the linked roles of business goals, source code, architecture, testing, and infrastructure
  • Identify technical debt items, and analyze their costs so you can prioritize action
  • Choose the right solution for each technical debt item: eliminate, reduce, or mitigate
  • Integrate software engineering practices that minimize new debt

Managing Technical Debt will be a valuable resource for every software professional who wants to accelerate innovation in existing systems, or build new systems that will be easier to maintain and evolve.



- Grady Booch,IBM Fellow




- 發現技術債如何損害可管理性、品質、生產力和士氣,以及您可以採取的措施
- 澄清債務的根本原因,包括商業目標、原始碼、架構、測試和基礎設施之間的聯繫
- 確定技術債項目,並分析其成本,以便優先採取行動
- 選擇每個技術債項目的正確解決方案:消除、減少或緩解
- 整合最小化新債務的軟體工程實踐



Philippe Kruchten is a professor of software engineering at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. He joined academia in 2004, after a 30]-year career in industry, where he worked mostly with large software-intensive systems design in the domains of telecommunication, defense, aerospace, and transportation. Some of his experience in software development is embodied in the Rational Unified Process (RUP), whose development he directed from 1995 until 2003. He's the author or co-author of Rational Unified Process: An Introduction (Addison-Wesley, 1998), RUP Made Easy: A Practitioner's Guide (Addison-Wesley, 2003), and Software Engineering with UPEDU (Addison-Wesley, 2003), as well as earlier books about programming in Pascal and Ada. He received a doctoral degree in information systems (1986) and a mechanical engineering degree (1975) from French engineering schools.

Robert Nord is a principal researcher at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, where he works to develop and communicate effective methods and practices for agile at scale, software architecture, and managing technical debt. He is coauthor of the practitioner-oriented books Applied Software Architecture (Addison-Wesley, 2000) and Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond (Addison-Wesley, 2011) and lectures on architecture-centric approaches. He received a PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University and is a distinguished member of the ACM.

Ipek Ozkaya is a principal researcher at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. Her primary work includes developing techniques for improving software development efficiency and system evolution, with an emphasis on software architecture practices, software economics, agile development, and managing technical debt in complex, large-scale software-intensive systems. In addition, as part of her responsibilities, she works with government and industry organizations to improve their software architecture practices. She received a PhD in Computational Design from Carnegie Mellon University. Ozkaya is a senior member of IEEE and the 2019--2021 editor-in-chief of IEEE Software magazine.


Philippe Kruchten是加拿大溫哥華不列顛哥倫比亞大學的軟體工程教授。他於2004年加入學術界,之前在工業界有30年的職業生涯,主要從事電信、國防、航空航太和交通等領域的大型軟體密集系統設計工作。他在軟體開發方面的經驗體現在Rational Unified Process (RUP)中,他從1995年到2003年擔任該方法的開發負責人。他是《Rational Unified Process: An Introduction》(Addison-Wesley,1998)、《RUP Made Easy: A Practitioner's Guide》(Addison-Wesley,2003)和《Software Engineering with UPEDU》(Addison-Wesley,2003)的作者或合著者,此外還有關於Pascal和Ada編程的早期著作。他在法國工程學院獲得了信息系統博士學位(1986年)和機械工程學位(1975年)。

Robert Nord是卡內基梅隆大學軟體工程研究所的首席研究員,致力於開發和傳播大規模敏捷、軟體架構和管理技術債的有效方法和實踐。他是實踐導向的書籍《Applied Software Architecture》(Addison-Wesley,2000)和《Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond》(Addison-Wesley,2011)的合著者,並講授架構導向的方法。他在卡內基梅隆大學獲得計算機科學博士學位,並是ACM的傑出成員。

Ipek Ozkaya是卡內基梅隆大學軟體工程研究所的首席研究員。她的主要工作包括開發提高軟體開發效率和系統演進的技術,重點關注軟體架構實踐、軟體經濟學、敏捷開發和在複雜的大型軟體密集系統中管理技術債。此外,作為她的職責的一部分,她與政府和工業組織合作,改進他們的軟體架構實踐。她在卡內基梅隆大學獲得了計算設計博士學位。Ozkaya是IEEE的高級會員,並擔任2019-2021年《IEEE Software》雜誌的主編。