E-Business and IS Solutions: An Architectural Approach to Business Problems and

William J. Buffam

  • 出版商: Addison-Wesley Professional
  • 出版日期: 2000-09-22
  • 定價: USD $34.95
  • 售價: $1,164
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,103
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 256
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 0201708477
  • ISBN-13: 9780201708479

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Description

Developing IT architectures that enable e-Business: the practical, concise guide!

  • Key high-level principles and guidelines for e-Business architecture.
  • Covers every stage of the solution-building process: the activities involved and how they fit together.
  • Why e-Business architectures are fundamentally different from anything that has come before.
As all business becomes e-Business, managers and IT professionals must implement IT architectures that are effective, flexible, resilient enough to handle relentless change, growth, and acceleration -- or risk becoming uncompetitive virtually overnight. Written for both managers and technical professionals, E-Business and IS Solutions: An Architectural Approach to Business Problems and Opportunities offers complete, high-level guidance for defining and implementing IT architectures that enable e-Business instead of standing in its way. The book demonstrates the benefits of an architecture-based approach to e-business, and shows managers how to design effective e-Business architectures and infrastructure for their organizations. William J. Buffam reviews the core principles and practices associated with applying e-Business technology for competitive advantage, walks through each key activity needed to define an effective e-Business architecture, and presents powerful solutions for unique challenges of designing IT infrastructure for e-Business applications. For all managers and IT professionals involved with e-Business strategy, implementation, or IT architecture, including architects, analysts, strategists, project managers, developers, and many others.

William J. Buffam heads up the Unisys Architectural Center of Excellence in Malvern, Pennsylvania. A graduate of the University of Manchester, his perspective of information technology has been shaped by many years of endeavor as solutions architect, software engineer, technology specialist, manager, and educator. During leisure hours, you'll likely find him soaring high in the sky on his hang glider, keeping the world in proper architectural perspective.

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Table Of Contents

Preface.
Acknowledgments.

I. SETTING THE SCENE FOR ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTION BUILDING.

1. Characteristics of E-Business.
What Do We Mean by “E-Business” ?
What Are the Effects of E-Business on Architectural IS Solution Building?

2. The Essence of “Architecture.”
The Evolution of Information Systems.
The Legacy of Isolated Systems.
The Emergence of Standards.
The Need for IS Architectures.

“Architecture” and the Original Architects.
Why Do We Need Architecture in Information Systems?
Fundamental Requirements.
Enabling Requirements.

“Architecture” in Information Systems — What Is It?
The Common-Component Sense of “Architecture.”
The Design Sense of “Architecture.”
The Blueprinting Sense of “Architecture.”
The Framework Sense of “Architecture.”

Summary of the “Architectural Way.”

3. Object-Oriented Methods and Architectural Solution Building.
What Is Object Orientation All About?
Object Orientation Compared with Functional Decomposition.
Models for Architectural Solution Building.
Modeling and Requirements Gathering.
Object-Oriented Development Environments.

Object Orientation and the “Architectural Way.”
Benefits of an Object-Oriented Approach.
Narrowing the Semantic Gap.
Object Orientation and Good Design.
Object Orientation at the Source Code Level.

Objects and Components.
Pitfalls of an Object-Oriented Approach.
Large, Complex Enterprises.
Inappropriate Mindset.

OO Benefits without OO Tools.
Where to Find More Information.

4. Project Scope Considerations.
Large-Scale Projects.
Characteristics of Large-Scale Projects.
Critical Success Factors for Large-Scale Projects.

Narrow-Scope Projects.
Characteristics of Narrow-Scope Projects.
Narrowing the Scope to Produce Repeatable Solutions.

Trade-Offs in Project Scope.
A Scope Trade-Off Illustration.
Scope, Commitment, and Risk.

Impact of Varying Scope on Architecture Stages.
The E-Business Paradigm.
The Reengineering Paradigm.
The Incremental Improvement Paradigm.
Summary of Project Paradigms.

Where to Find More Information.

II. THE SEVEN-STAGE SOLUTION-BUILDING PROCESS.


5. Introduction.
Overview of the Architectural Solution-Building Process.
Architectural Solution-Building Team.
Stages and Participants.
Team Roles.
Team Size and Dynamics.

Global Architectural Principles.

6. Business Modeling.
Business Modeling in the Context of the Total Process.
Relation to Other Stages.
Relation to the OO Model Set.
Participants.

Information Sources for the Business Modeling Stage.
Existing Written Material.
Team Experience and Expertise.
Interviews.
Brainstorming Workshops.

Business Strategy.
Enterprise Mission and Objectives.
Business Environment.

The Business Model.
Content of the Business Model.
Tools for Developing the Business Model.
Adjusting the Focus — Setting the Scope.
Where We've Been, and Where We're Going.
Reuse and the Business Model.
Models for Reengineering.
Models for E-Business.
Models for Incremental Improvement.

Applying the Business Model.
Alignment of the IS Solution with Business Objectives.
Organizational Impact of the Business Model.
Models as Monitors of Scope Creep.

Where Was the “Architecture” ?

7. IS Modeling.
IS Modeling in the Context of the Total Process.
Relation to Other Stages.
Relation to the OO Model Set.
Participants.

IS Strategy.
Five-Era View.

Developing the IS Strategy.
Guidelines for Business-Driven IS Strategy.
Guidelines for Technology-Driven IS Strategy.
Content of the IS Strategy.

The IS Model.
The IS Model for Large-Scope Projects.
The Reuse Principle and the IS Model.
Content of the IS Model.
The IS Model for Narrow-Scope Projects.
Forks in the Road: Solution Alternatives.

The IS Real-Object Model.
Where Was the “Architecture” ?

8. Current IS Analysis.
Overview.
Current IS Analysis in the Context of the Total Process.
Relation to Other Stages.
Participants.

Introducing the Architectural Framework.
Conducting the Current IS Inventory.
Inventory of IS Components.
Business Solution Applications.
Solution Enablers.
Data.
Middleware Integration Software.
Operating Systems.
Hardware Platforms.
Network.
Development Environments, Tools, and Methodologies.
Management Enablers.
Security Enablers.
IS Organization.

Assessment of Current IS Environment.
Functionality.
Non-Functional Attributes.
Human-Resource Capabilities.
Outsourced Services.

Where Was the “Architecture” ?

9. IS Architecture Planning.
IS Architecture Planning in the Context of the Total Process.
Relation to Other Stages.
Relation to the OO Model Set.
Participants.

Architectural Principles.
How Are Principles Defined?
Guidelines for Writing Principles.

Defining Architecture Models.
Forks in the Road: Solution Alternatives.
Architecture Models for Object-Oriented Development Environments.
Architecture Models for Non-Object-Oriented Development Environments.

Defining Supporting IT Infrastructure.
Technology Evaluation Criteria and Considerations.
Filling Technology Gaps.
Identifying Hardware and Software Products.

IT Infrastructure for E-Business.
Environmental Influences on E-Business Technology.
E-Business Technology: Its Responses to Environmental Demands.
Where Was the “Architecture” ?

Where to Find More Information.

10. Implementation Planning.
Implementation Planning in the Context of the Total Process.
Relation to Other Stages.
Participants.

Identifying Implementation Options.
Preliminary Analysis of Implementation Options.
Analyzing the Implementation Options.
Cost-Benefit Analysis.
Analyzing Risks.
Analyzing Organizational Impact.

Establishing a Transition Strategy.
Using a Risk-Benefit Matrix.
Selecting Short- and Long-Term Priorities.
Diversifying Risk.
Determining a Transition Sequence.
Building a Business Case and Determining a Transition Strategy.

Where Was the “Architecture” ?
Where to Find More Information.

11. Deployment.
Deployment in the Context of the Total Process.
Relation to Other Stages.
Participants.

Deployment Activities.
Project Management.
Management Tasks.
Feedback Loops.

Where Was the “Architecture” ?

12. Review.
The Review Stage in the Context of the Total Process.
Participants.
Relation to Other Stages.

Reviewing Projects.
Activities in the Review Stage.

Maintaining the IS Architecture.
Ongoing Maintenance.
Ongoing Maintenance: Reacting to Change.
Scheduled Maintenance.
Benefits of Proper Maintenance.

III. LET'S GET PRACTICAL.



13. Enlisting Outside Help: The Role of Consultants.
Consultants for Cross-Enterprise Leverage.
Consultants for Technology Expertise.
Consultants as Project Managers.
The Bottom Line on Consultants.

14. Methodologies: Patterns for Solution Building.
What's in a Methodology?
Developing or Acquiring a Methodology.
Using a Methodology in Practice.
Pitfall 1: “This Stuff Is Easy!”
Pitfall 2: You Can't Fly a Boeing 747 Just by Reading the Manual.
Pitfall 3: Methodology Bloat.


15. Practical Considerations in Conducting Solution Building.
Feedback Loops and Whirlpools.
Duration of Solution Building.
Architectural Solution Building and Ongoing Projects.
Allocating Resources.
Integrating Multiple Projects.


16. Issues Concerning Reuse.
Benefits of Reuse.
Reuse Domains.
Source Code.
Middleware.
Business Logic.

Impediments to Reuse.
Essential Enablers of Reuse.
Environmental Drivers of Reuse.
Sources of Reusable Artifacts.
Reusable Artifacts from Ongoing Development.
Reusable Artifacts from Current IS Assets.
Reusable Artifacts from Packaged Software.
Reusable Artifacts from the Specialty Store.
Reusable Artifacts from the Specialty Broker.


Epilogue: Take-Home Thoughts.
Bibliography and References.
Index. 0201708477T04062001


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