Believing that the enterprise of constructing "artificial intelligence" transcends the bounds of any one discipline, the editors of Mechanical Bodies, Computational Minds have brought together researchers in AI and scholars in the humanities to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of both areas. The AI community, for example, could benefit from explorations of human intelligence and creativity by philosophers, psychologists, anthropologists, literary critics, and others, while analysis of AI's theoretical struggles and technical advances could yield insights into such traditional humanist concerns as the nature of rationality and the mind-body dichotomy.
The contributions include a continuation of the famous Hubert Dreyfus-Daniel Dennett debate over Kasparov's defeat by IBM's Deep Blue; Philip Agre's tracing of difficulties in AI research to the inherited tensions of Cartesian dualism; Evelyn Fox Keller's examination of the development of computer technology in relation to biology; Douglas Hofstadter's argument that thinking is more than the theorem-solving activities of AI; and Alison Adam's discussion of the implicitly male universal subject used in AI.
Stefano Franchi is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Auckland.
Güven Güzeldere is Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Assistant Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Duke University. He is coeditor (with Ned Block and Owen Flanagan) of The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical and Scientific Debates (MIT Press, 1998) and a founding associate editor of Psyche: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Consciousness.
Table of Contents:
Acknowledgments vii Introduction 1 I Introducing Artificial Intelligence: Past, Present, and Future Machinations of the Mind: Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence from Automata to Cyborgs
Stefano Franchi and Güven Güzeldere
15 II In the Shadow of Artificial Intelligence: Automata, Cybernetics, and AI The Soul Gained and Lost: Artificial Intelligence as a Philosophical Project
Philip E. Agre
153 The Man-Machine and Artificial Intelligence
175 Marrying the Premodern to the Postmodern: Computers and Organisms after World War II
Evelyn Fox Keller
203 A Gallery of Monsters: Cybernetics and Self-Organization, 1940-1970
229 III Controversies of Artificial Intelligence: Critics and Defenders On Seeing A's and Seeing As
Douglas R. Hofstadter
249 Did Deep Blue's Win over Kasparov Prove That Artificial Intelligence Has Succeeded? A Debate
Hubert L. Dreyfus and Daniel C. Dennett
265 Machines and the Mental
281 IV The Light Side of Artificial Intelligence Dialogues with Colorful "Personalities" of Early AI
Güven Güzeldere and Stefano Franchi
295 V Artificial Intelligence Meets the Humanities: Epistemological Challenges The Hume Machine: Can Association Networks Do More Than Formal Rules?
Bruno Latour and Geneviève Teil
307 Knowing Subjects: AI from Feminist Philosophy
327 Humans, Machines, and the Structure of Knowledge
Harry M. Collins
345 Swamped by the Updates: Expert Systems, Semioclasm, and Apeironic Education
Michael L. Johnson
365 VI Broader Conceptions of Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Research as Art
391 Why AI Is Not a Science
409 Dance Floor Blues: The Case for a Social AI
423 The Epistemological and Philosophical Situation of Mind Technoscience
453 Phenomenology and Cognitive Science
471 Artificial Intelligence and Theology: From Mythos to Logos and Back
489 Contributors 515 Index 519