Data Converters (Hardcover)

Franco Maloberti

  • 出版商: Springer
  • 出版日期: 2007-02-22
  • 定價: $4,335
  • 售價: 9.8$4,249
  • 貴賓價: 9.3$4,037
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 440
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0815148178
  • ISBN-13: 9780387324852

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This book is the first graduate-level textbook presenting a comprehensive treatment of Data Converters. The advancement of digital electronics urged the availability of a still missing support for teaching and self-learning analog-digital interfaces at many levels: the specification, the conversion methods and architectures, the circuit design and the testing.


This book, after the necessary study of the background theoretical elements, covers aspects and provide elements for a deep and comprehensive knowledge. The breath and the level of details of topics is enhanced by introductory material in each chapter and the use of many examples, most of them in the form of computer behavioral simulations. The examples and the end-of-chapter problems help in understanding and favor self-practice using tools that are effective for training and for design activity.


Data Converters is a textbook that is also essential for engineering professionals as it was written for responding to a shortage of organically organized material on the topic. The book assumes a solid background in analog and digital circuits as well as a working knowledge of simulation tools for circuit and behavioral analysis. A background on statistical analysis is also helpful, though not strictly necessary.

Coverage of all the basic elements essential for a clear understanding of sampling, quantization, noise in sampled-data systems and mathematical tools for sampled-data linear systems

Comprehensive definition of the parameters used to specify data converters and necessary for understanding product data sheets

Coverage of all the architectures used in Nyquist-rate data converters and detailed study of features, limits and design techniques

Detailed study of oversampled and Sigma-Delta converters with simulation examples and use of spectra and histograms for a clear understanding of features and limit if the noise shaping

Coverage of digital correction and calibration techniques for enhancing performances

Use of theory and intuitive views to explain circuits and systems operation and limits

Coverage of testing methods and description of the data processing used for testing and characterization

Extensive use of Simulink and Matlab in examples and problem sets to assist reader comprehension and favor deeper study


Table of Contents

1. BACKGROUND ELEMENTS. 1.1 The Ideal Data Converter. 1.2 The Sampling. 1.2.1 Undersampling. 1.2.2 Sampling-time Jitter. 1.3 Amplitude Quantization. 1.3.1 Quantization Noise. 1.3.2 Properties of the Quantization Noise. 1.4 kT/C Noise. 1.5 Discrete and Fast Fourier Transforms. 1.5.1 Windowing. 1.6 Coding Schemes. 1.7 The D/A Converter. 1.7.1 Ideal Reconstruction. 1.7.2 Real Reconstruction. 1.8 The z-Transform. References.

2. DATA CONVERTERS SPECIFICATIONS. 2.1 Type of Converter. 2.2 Conditions of Operation. 2.3 Converter Specifications. 2.3.1 General Features. 2.4 Static Specifications. 2.5 Dynamic Specifications. 2.6 Digital and Switching Specifications. References.

3. NYQUIST-RATE D/A CONVERTERS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.1.1 DAC Applications. 3.1.2 Voltage and Current References. 3.2 Types of Converters. 3.3 Resistor based Architectures. 3.3.1 Resistive Divider. 3.3.2 X-Y Selection. 3.3.3 Settling of the Output Voltage. 3.3.4 Segmented Architectures. 3.3.5 Effect of the Mismatch. 3.3.6 Trimming and Calibration. 3.3.7 Digital Potentiometer. 3.3.8 R-2R Resistor Ladder DAC. 3.3.9 Deglitching. 3.4 Capacitor Based Architectures. 3.4.1 Capacitive Divider DAC. 3.4.2 Capacitive MDAC. 3.4.3 "Flip Around" MDAC. 3.4.4 Hybrid Capacitive-Resistive DACs. 3.5 Current Source based Architectures. 3.5.1 Basic Operation. 3.5.2 Unity Current Generator. 3.5.3 Random Mismatch Unary Selection. 3.5.4 Current Sources Selection. 3.5.5 Current Switching and Segmentation. 3.5.6 Switching of Current Sources. 3.6 Other Architectures. References.

4. NYQUIST RATE A/D CONVERTERS. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Timing Accuracy. 4.2.1 Metastability error. 4.3 Full-Flash Converters. 4.3.1 Reference Voltages. 4.3.2 Offset of Comparators. 4.3.3 Offset Auto-zeroing. 4.3.4 Practical Limits. 4.4 Subranging and Two-Step Converters. 4.4.1 Accuracy requirements. 4.4.2 Two-step Converter as a Non-linear Process. 4.5 Folding Technique and Interpolation. 4.5.1 Double Folding. 4.5.2 Interpolation. 4.5.3 Use of Interpolation in Flash Converters. 4.5.4 Use of Interpolation in Folding Architectures. 4.5.5 Interpolation for Improving Linearity. 4.6 Time-Interleaved Converters. 4.6.1 Accuracy requirements. 4.7 Successive Approximation Converter. 4.7.1 Errors and Error Correction. 4.8 Pipeline Converters. 4.8.1 Accuracy Requirements. 4.8.2 Digital Correction. 4.8.3 Dynamic Performances. 4.8.4 Sampled-data Residue Generator. 4.9 Other Architectures. 4.9.1 Cyclic (or Algorithmic) Converter. 4.9.2 Integrating Converter. 4.9.3 Voltage-to-Frequency Converter. References.

5. CIRCUITS FOR DATA CONVERTERS. 5.1 Sample-and-Hold. 5.2 Diode Bridge S&H. 5.2.1 Diode Bridge Imperfections. 5.2.2 Improved Diode Bridge. 5.3 Switched Emitter Follower. 5.3.1 Circuit Implementation. 5.3.2 Complementary Bipolar S&H. 5.4 Features of S&H  made by BJT. 5.5 CMOS Sample-and-Hold. 5.5.1 Clock Feedthrough. 5.5.2 Clock Feedthrough Compensation. 5.5.3 Two-stages OTA as T&H. 5.5.4 Use of the Virtual Ground in CMOS S&H. 5.5.5 Noise Analysis. 5.6 CMOS Switch with Low Supply Voltage. 5.6.1 Switch Bootstrapping. 5.7 Folding Amplifiers. 5.7.1 Current-Folding. 5.7.2 Voltage Folding. 5.8 Voltage-to-Current Converter. 5.9 Clock Generation. References.

6. OVERSAMPLING DATA CONVERTERS. 6.1 Introduction. 6.1.1 Delta and Sigma-Delta Modulation. 6.2 First and Second Order Sigma-Delta Modulators. 6.2.1 Intuitive Views. 6.2.2 Use of 1-bit Quantization. 6.2.3 Second Order Modulator. 6.2.4 Quantization Error and Dithering. 6.3 High Order Noise Shaping. 6.3.1 Dynamic Range Considerations. 6.3.2 Dynamic Ranges Optimization. 6.4 Practical Considerations. 6.4.1 Offset. 6.4.2 Finite Op-Amp Gain. 6.4.3 Finite Op-Amp Bandwidth. 6.4.4 Finite Op-Amp Slew-Rate. 6.4.5 Noise Considerations. 6.4.6 ADC Non-idealities. 6.4.7 DAC Non-idealities. 6.4.8 Single-bit and Multi-bit. 6.4.9 SNR Enhancement. 6.5 High Order Architectures. 6.5.1 Use of Weighted Feedback Summation. 6.5.2 Use of Local Feedback. 6.5.3 Chain of Integrators with Distributed Feedback. 6.5.4 Stability for High-order Modulators. 6.5.5 Cascaded Sigma Delta Modulator. 6.6 Continuous-time Sigma Delta Modulators. 6.6.1 DAC Limitations. 6.6.2 CT Implementations. 6.6.3 Equivalence of CT and Sampled-Data Modulators. 6.7 Band-Pass Sigma Delta Modulator. 6.8 Oversampling DAC. 6.8.1 1-bit DAC. 6.8.2 Multi-levels DAC. References.

7. DIGITAL ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Error Measurement. 7.3 Digital Trimming of Elements. 7.4 Foreground Calibration. 7.5 Background Calibration. 7.5.1 Calibration of Interleaved Converters. 7.6 Dynamic Matching. 7.6.1 Butterfly Randomization. 7.6.2 Individual Level Averaging. 7.6.3 Data Weighted Averaging. 7.6.4 DEM Comparison. 7.7 Decimation and Interpolation. References.

8. TESTING OF D/A AND A/D CONVERTERS. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Data Processing. 8.2.1 Best-fit-line. 8.2.2 Sine Wave Fitting. 8.2.3 Histogram Method. 8.3 Static Testing of DACs. 8.3.1 Transfer Curve Test. 8.3.2 Superposition of Errors. 8.3.3 Non-linearity Error. 8.4 Dynamic DAC Testing. 8.4.1 Conversion Time. 8.4.2 Glitch Energy. 8.5 Static Testing of ADCs. 8.5.1 Code Edge Measurement. 8.5.2 Code Density Test. 8.6 Dynamic ADC Testing. 8.6.1 Conversion time. 8.6.2 Step Response Parameters. 8.6.3 Frequency Response Parameters. References.