Color Appearance Models, 2/e

Mark D. Fairchild

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2005-02-07
  • 售價: $4,310
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$4,095
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 408
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0470012161
  • ISBN-13: 9780470012161
  • 已過版





There is an ever-increasing demand for a standard way to transport colours among devices on the Internet, and for achieving colour fidelity across digital media. The rapid growth in colour imaging technology has led to the emergence of colour management systems. These systems require colour appearance models so that images produced in one medium and viewed in a particular environment, may be reproduced in a second medium and viewed under different conditions. 

The eagerly anticipated second edition of Colour Appearance Models brings the fundamental issues and current solutions in the area of colour appearance modelling together in a single place for those needing to solve practical problems or looking for background for ongoing research projects. This book provides the relevant information for an updated review of colour appearance and provide details of many of the most widely used models to date, for example, Nayatani et al., Hunt, and RLAB and the ATD and LLAB appearance models that are of increasing interest for some applications. It also includes the recently formulated CIECAM02 model that represents a significant improvement of CIECAM97S and is the best possible model based on current knowledge. Fairchild presents an updated overview of device-independent colour imaging and finally introduces the concept of image appearance modelling as a potential future direction for colour appearance modelling research.

A website accompanies this text that lists developments, publications and calculations related to the material in this book.


Table of Contents:

Series Preface.



1 Human Color Vision.

1.1 Optics of the Eye.

1.2 The Retina.

1.3 Visual Signal Processing.

1.4 Mechanisms of Color Vision.

1.5 Spatial and Temporal Properties of Color Vision.

1.6 Color Vision Deficiencies.

1.7 Key Features for Color Appearance Modeling.

2 Psychophysics.

2.1 Psychophysics Defined.

2.2 Historical Context.

2.3 Hierarchy of Scales.

2.4 Threshold Techniques.

2.5 Matching Techniques.

2.6 One-Dimensional Scaling.

2.7 Multidimensional Scaling.

2.8 Design of Psychophysical Experiments.

2.9 Importance in Color Appearance Modeling.

3 Colorimetry.

3.1 Basic and Advanced Colorimetry.

3.2 Why is Color?

3.3 Light Sources and Illuminants.

3.4 Colored Materials.

3.5 The Human Visual Response.

3.6 Tristimulus Values and Color Matching Functions.

3.7 Chromaticity Diagrams.

3.8 CIE Color Spaces.

3.9 Color Difference Specification.

3.10 The Next Step.

4 Color Appearance Terminology.

4.1 Importance of Definitions.

4.2 Color.

4.3 Hue.

4.4 Brightness and Lightness.

4.5 Colorfulness and Chroma.

4.6 Saturation.

4.7 Unrelated and Related Colors.

4.8 Definitions in Equations.

4.9 Brightness–Colorfulness vs Lightness–Chroma.

5 Color Order Systems.

5.1 Overview and Requirements.

5.2 The Munsell Book of Color.

5.3 The Swedish Natural Color System (NCS).

5.4 The Colorcurve System.

5.5 Other Color Order Systems.

5.6 Uses of Color Order Systems.

5.7 Color Naming Systems.

6 Color Appearance Phenomena.

6.1 What Are Color Appearance Phenomena?

6.2 Simultaneous Contrast, Crispening, and Spreading.

6.3 Bezold–Brücke Hue Shift (Hue Changes with Luminance).

6.4 Abney Effect (Hue Changes with Colorimetric Purity).

6.5 Helmholtz–Kohlrausch Effect (Brightness Depends on Luminance and Chromaticity).

6.6 Hunt Effect (Colorfulness Increases with Luminance).

6.7 Stevens Effect (Contrast Increases with Luminance).

6.8 Helson– Judd Effect (Hue of Nonselective Samples).

6.9 Bartleson–Breneman Equations (Image Contrast Changes with Surround).

6.10 Discounting the Illuminant.

6.11 Other Context and Structural Effects.

6.12 Color Constancy?

7 Viewing Conditions.

7.1 Configuration of the Viewing Field.

7.2 Colorimetric Specification of the Viewing Field.

7.3 Modes of Viewing.

7.4 Unrelated and Related Colors Revisited.

8 Chromatic Adaptation.

8.1 Light, Dark, and Chromatic Adaptation.

8.2 Physiology.

8.3 Sensory and Cognitive Mechanisms.

8.4 Corresponding-colors Data.

8.5 Models.

8.6 Computational Color Constancy.

9 Chromatic Adaptation Models.

9.1 von Kries Model.

9.2 Retinex Theory.

9.3 Nayatani et al. Model.

9.4 Guth’s Model.

9.5 Fairchild’s Model.

9.6 Herding CATs.

9.7 CAT02.

10 Color Appearance Models.

10.1 Definition of Color Appearance Models.

10.2 Construction of Color Appearance Models.

10.3 CIELAB.

10.4 Why Not Use Just CIELAB?

10.5 What About CIELUV?

11 The Nayatani et al. Model.

11.1 Objectives and Approach.

11.2 Input Data.

11.3 Adaptation Model.

11.4 Opponent Color Dimensions.

11.5 Brightness.

11.6 Lightness.

11.7 Hue.

11.8 Saturation.

11.9 Chroma.

11.10 Colorfulness.

11.11 Inverse Model.

11.12 Phenomena Predicted.

11.13 Why Not Use Just the Nayatani et al. Model?

12 The Hunt Model.

12.1 Objectives and Approach.

12.2 Input Data.

12.3 Adaptation Model.

12.4 Opponent Color Dimensions.

12.5 Hue.

12.6 Saturation.

12.7 Brightness.

12.8 Lightness.

12.9 Chroma.

12.10 Colorfulness.

12.11 Inverse Model.

12.12 Phenomena Predicted.

12.13 Why Not Use Just the Hunt Model?

13 The RLAB Model.

13.1 Objectives and Approach.

13.2 Input Data.

13.3 Adaptation Model.

13.4 Opponent Color Dimensions.

13.5 Lightness.

13.6 Hue.

13.7 Chroma.

13.8 Saturation.

13.9 Inverse Model.

13.10 Phenomena Predicted.

13.11 Why Not Use Just the RLAB Model?

14 Other Models.

14.1 Overview.

14.2 ATD Model.

14.3 LLAB Model.

15 The CIE Color Appearance Model (1997), CIECAM97s.

15.1 Historical Development, Objectives, and Approach.

15.2 Input Data.

15.3 Adaptation Model.

15.4 Appearance Correlates.

15.5 Inverse Model.

15.6 Phenomena Predicted.

15.7 The ZLAB Color Appearance Model.

15.8 Why Not Use Just CIECAM97s?

16 CIECAM02.

16.1 Objectives and Approach.

16.2 Input Data.

16.3 Adaptation Model.

16.4 Opponent Color Dimensions.

16.5 Hue.

16.6 Lightness.

16.7 Brightness.

16.8 Chroma.

16.9 Colorfulness.

16.10 Saturation.

16.11 Cartesian Coordinates.

16.12 Inverse Model.

16.13 Implementation Guidelines.

16.14 Phenomena Predicted.

16.15 Why Not Use Just CIECAM02?

16.16 Outlook.

17 Testing Color Appearance Models.

17.1 Overview.

17.2 Qualitative Tests.

17.3 Corresponding Colors Data.

17.4 Magnitude Estimation Experiments.

17.5 Direct Model Tests.

17.6 CIE Activities.

17.7 A Pictorial Review of Color Appearance Models.

18 Traditional Colorimetric Applications.

18.1 Color Rendering.

18.2 Color Differences.

18.3 Indices of Metamerism.

18.4 A General System of Colorimetry?

19 Device-independent Color Imaging.

19.1 The Problem.

19.2 Levels of Color Reproduction.

19.3 A Revised Set of Objectives.

19.4 General Solution.

19.5 Device Calibration and Characterization.

19.6 The Need for Color Appearance Models.

19.7 Definition of Viewing Conditions.

19.8 Viewing-conditions-independent Color Space.

19.9 Gamut Mapping.

19.10 Color Preferences.

19.11 Inverse Process.

19.12 Example System.

19.13 ICC Implementation.

20 Image Appearance Modeling and The Future.

20.1 From Color Appearance to Image Appearance.

20.2 The iCAM Framework.

20.3 A Modular Image-difference Model.

20.4 Image Appearance and Rendering Applications.

20.5 Image Difference and Quality Applications.

20.6 Future Directions.