Smart Material Systems and MEMS: Design and Development Methodologies

Vijay K. Varadan, K. J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2006-10-06
  • 售價: $1,650
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,568
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 418
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0470093617
  • ISBN-13: 9780470093610

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Presenting unified coverage of the design and modeling of smart micro- and macrosystems, this book addresses fabrication issues and outlines the challenges faced by engineers working with smart sensors in a variety of applications.

Part I deals with the fundamental concepts of a typical smart system and its constituent components. Preliminary fabrication and characterization concepts are introduced before design principles are discussed in detail. Part III presents a comprehensive account of the modeling of smart systems, smart sensors and actuators. Part IV builds upon the fundamental concepts to analyze fabrication techniques for silicon-based MEMS in more detail.

Practicing engineers will benefit from the detailed assessment of applications in communications technology, aerospace, biomedical and mechanical engineering. The book provides an essential reference or textbook for graduates following a course in smart sensors, actuators and systems.


Table of Contents


About the Authors.


1. Introduction to Smart Systems.

1.1 Components of a smart system.

1.1.1 ‘Smartness’.

1.1.2 Sensors, actuators, transducers .

1.1.3 Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS).

1.1.4 Control algorithms.

1.1.5 Modeling approaches.

1.1.6 Effects of scaling.

1.1.7 Optimization schemes.

1.2 Evolution of smart materials and structures.

1.3 Application areas for smart systems.

1.4 Organization of the book.


2. Processing of Smart Materials.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Semiconductors and their processing.

2.2.1 Silicon crystal growth from the melt.

2.2.2 Epitaxial growth of semiconductors.

2.3 Metals and metallization techniques.

2.4 Ceramics.

2.4.1 Bulk ceramics.

2.4.2 Thick films.

2.4.3 Thin films.

2.5 Silicon micromachining techniques.

2.6 Polymers and their synthesis.

2.6.1 Classification of polymers.

2.6.2 Methods of polymerization.

2.7 UV radiation curing of polymers.

2.7.1 Relationship between wavelength and radiation energy.

2.7.2 Mechanisms of UV curing.

2.7.3 Basic kinetics of photopolymerization.

2.8 Deposition techniques for polymer thin films.

2.9 Properties and synthesis of carbon nanotubes.



3. Sensors for Smart Systems.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Conductometric sensors.

3.3 Capacitive sensors.

3.4 Piezoelectric sensors.

3.5 Magnetostrictive sensors.

3.6 Piezoresistive sensors.

3.7 Optical sensors.

3.8 Resonant sensors.

3.9 Semiconductor-based sensors.

3.10 Acoustic sensors.

3.11 Polymeric sensors.

3.12 Carbon nanotube sensors.


4. Actuators for Smart Systems.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Electrostatic transducers.

4.3 Electromagnetic transducers.

4.4 Electrodynamic transducers.

4.5 Piezoelectric transducers.

4.6 Electrostrictive transducers.

4.7 Magnetostrictive transducers.

4.8 Electrothermal actuators.

4.9 Comparison of actuation schemes.


5. Design Examples for Sensors and Actuators.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Piezoelectric sensors.

5.3 MEMS IDT-based accelerometers.

5.4 Fiber-optic gyroscopes.

5.5 Piezoresistive pressure sensors.

5.6 SAW-based wireless strain sensors.

5.7 SAW-based chemical sensors.

5.8 Microfluidic systems.



6. Introductory Concepts in Modeling.

6.1 Introduction to the theory of elasticity.

6.1.1 Description of motion.

6.1.2 Strain.

6.1.3 Strain–displacement relationship.

6.1.4 Governing equations of motion.

6.1.5 Constitutive relations.

6.1.6 Solution procedures in the linear theory of elasticity.

6.1.7 Plane problems in elasticity.

6.2 Theory of laminated composites.

6.2.1 Introduction.

6.2.2 Micromechanical analysis of a lamina.

6.2.3 Stress–strain relations for a lamina.

6.2.4 Analysis of a laminate.

6.3 Introduction to wave propagation in structures.

6.3.1 Fourier analysis 129.

6.3.2 Wave characteristics in 1-D waveguides 134.


7. Introduction to the Finite Element Method.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Variational principles.

7.2.1 Work and complimentary work.

7.2.2 Strain energy, complimentary strain energy and kinetic energy.

7.2.3 Weighted residual technique.

7.3 Energy functionals and variational operator.

7.3.1 Variational symbol.

7.4 Weak form of the governing differential equation.

7.5 Some basic energy theorems.

7.5.1 Concept of virtual work.

7.5.2 Principle of virtual work (PVW).

7.5.3 Principle of minimum potential energy (PMPE).

7.5.4 Rayleigh–Ritz method.

7.5.5 Hamilton’s principle (HP).

7.6 Finite element method.

7.6.1 Shape functions.

7.6.2 Derivation of the finite element equation.

7.6.3 Isoparametric formulation and numerical integration.

7.6.4 Numerical integration and Gauss quadrature.

7.6.5 Mass and damping matrix formulation.

7.7 Computational aspects in the finite element method.

7.7.1 Factors governing the speed of the FE solution.

7.7.2 Equation solution in static analysis.

7.7.3 Equation solution in dynamic analysis.

7.8 Superconvergent finite element formulation.

7.8.1 Superconvergent deep rod finite element.

7.9 Spectral finite element formulation.


8. Modeling of Smart Sensors and Actuators.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Finite element modeling of a 3-D composite laminate with embedded piezoelectric sensors and actuators.

8.2.1 Constitutive model.

8.2.2 Finite element modeling.

8.2.3 2-D Isoparametric plane stress smart composite finite element.

8.2.4 Numerical example.

8.3 Superconvergent smart thin-walled box beam element.

8.3.1 Governing equation for a thin-walled smart composite beam.

8.3.2 Finite element formulation.

8.3.3 Formulation of consistent mass matrix.

8.3.4 Numerical experiments.

8.4 Modeling of magnetostrictive sensors and actuators.

8.4.1 Constitutive model for a magnetostrictive material (Terfenol-D) .

8.4.2 Finite element modeling of composite structures with embedded magnetostrictive patches.

8.4.3 Numerical examples.

8.4.4 Modeling of piezo fibre composite (PFC) sensors/actuators.

8.5 Modeling of micro electromechanical systems.

8.5.1 Analytical model for capacitive thin-film sensors.

8.5.2 Numerical example.

8.6 Modeling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs).

8.6.1 Spectral finite element modeling of an MWCNT.


9. Active Control Techniques.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Mathematical models for control theory.

9.2.1 Transfer function.

9.2.2 State-space modeling.

9.3 Stability of control system.

9.4 Design concepts and methodology.

9.4.1 PD, PI and PID controllers.

9.4.2 Eigenstructure assignment technique.

9.5 Modal order reduction.

9.5.1 Review of available modal order reduction techniques.

9.6 Active control of vibration and waves due to broadband excitation.

9.6.1 Available strategies for vibration and wave control.

9.6.2 Active spectral finite element model (ASEM) for broadband wave control.



10. Silicon Fabrication Techniques for MEMS.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Fabrication processes for silicon MEMS.

10.2.1 Lithography.

10.2.2 Resists and mask formation.

10.2.3 Lift-off technique.

10.2.4 Etching techniques.

10.2.5 Wafer bonding for MEMS.

10.3 Deposition techniques for thin films in MEMS.

10.3.3 CVD of dielectrics.

10.3.4 Polysilicon film deposition.

10.3.5 Deposition of ceramic thin films.

10.4 Bulk micromachining for silicon-based MEMS.

10.4.1 Wet etching for bulk micromachining.

10.4.2 Etch-stop techniques.

10.4.3 Dry etching for micromachining.

10.5 Silicon surface micromachining.

10.5.1 Material systems in sacrificial layer technology.

10.6 Processing by both bulk and surface micromachining.

10.7 LIGA process.


11. Polymeric MEMS Fabrication Techniques.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Microstereolithography.

11.2.1 Overview of stereolithography.

11.2.2 Introduction to microstereolithography.

11.2.3 MSL by scanning methods.

11.2.4 Projection-type methods of MSL.

11.3 Micromolding of polymeric 3-D structures.

11.3.1 Micro-injection molding.

11.3.2 Micro-photomolding.

11.3.3 Micro hot-embossing.

11.3.4 Micro transfer-molding.

11.3.5 Micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC).

11.4 Incorporation of metals and ceramics by polymeric processes.

11.4.1 Burnout and sintering.

11.4.2 Jet molding.

11.4.3 Fabrication of ceramic structures with MSL.

11.4.4 Powder injection molding.

11.4.5 Fabrication of metallic 3-D microstructures.

11.4.6 Metal–polymer microstructures.

11.5 Combined silicon and polymer structures.

11.5.1 Architecture combination by MSL.

11.5.2 MSL integrated with thick-film lithography.

11.5.3 AMANDA process.


12. Integration and Packaging of Smart Microsystems.

12.1 Integration of MEMS and microelectronics.

12.1.1 CMOS first process.

12.1.2 MEMS first process.

12.1.3 Intermediate process.

12.1.4 Multichip module.

12.2 MEMS packaging.

12.2.1 Objectives in packaging.

12.2.2 Special issues in MEMS packaging.

12.2.3 Types of MEMS packages.

12.3 Packaging techniques.

12.3.1 Flip-chip assembly.

12.3.2 Ball-grid array.

12.3.3 Embedded overlay.

12.3.4 Wafer-level packaging.

12.4 Reliability and key failure mechanisms.

12.5 Issues in packaging of microsystems.


13. Fabrication Examples of Smart Microsystems.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 PVDF transducers.

13.2.1 PVDF-based transducer for structural health monitoring.

13.2.2 PVDF film for a hydrophone.

13.3 SAW accelerometer.

13.4 Chemical and biosensors.

13.4.1 SAW-based smart tongue.

13.4.2 CNT-based glucose sensor.

13.5 Polymeric fabrication of a microfluidic system.


14. Structural Health Monitoring Applications.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Structural health monitoring of composite wing-type structures using magnetostrictive sensors/actuators.

14.2.1 Experimental study of a through-width delaminated beam specimen.

14.2.2 Three-dimensional finite element modeling and analysis.

14.2.3 Composite beam with single smart patch.

14.2.4 Composite beam with two smart patches.

14.2.5 Two-dimensional wing-type plate structure.

14.3 Assesment of damage severity and health monitoring using PZT sensors/actuators.

14.4 Actuation of DCB specimen under Mode-II dynamic loading.

14.5 Wireless MEMS–IDT microsensors for health monitoring of structures and systems.

14.5.1 Description of technology.

14.5.2 Wireless-telemetry systems.


15. Vibration and Noise-Control Applications.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Active vibration control in a thin-walled box beam.

15.2.1 Test article and experimental set-up.

15.2.2 DSP-based vibration controller card.

15.2.3 Closed-loop feedback vibration control using a PI controller.

15.2.4 Multi-modal control of vibration in a box beam using eigenstructure assignment.

15.3 Active noise control of structure-borne vibration and noise in a helicopter cabin.

15.3.1 Active strut system.

15.3.2 Numerical simulations.