WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications, 3/e

Harri Holma, Antti Toskala

  • 出版商: Wiley
  • 出版日期: 2004-09-15
  • 售價: $1,600
  • 貴賓價: 9.8$1,568
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 478
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0470870966
  • ISBN-13: 9780470870969
  • 相關分類: 行動通訊 Mobile-communication
  • 已絕版




Highly regarded as the book on the air interface of 3G cellular systems WCDMA for UMTS has again been fully revised and updated. The third edition now covers the key features of 3GPP Release 6 ensuring it remains the leading principal resource in this constantly progressing area.

By providing a deep understanding of the WCDMA air interface, the practical approach of this third edition will continue to appeal to operators, network and terminal manufacturers, service providers, university students and frequency regulators.

  • Explains the key parts of the 3GPP/WCDMA standard
  • Presents network dimensioning, coverage and capacity of WCDMA
  • Introduces TDD and discusses its differences from FDD

Key third edition updates include:

  • Covers the main 3GPP Release 6 updates
  • Further enhances High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) chapter with a number of new simulation results
  • Explains High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) study item
  • Introduces the new services including their performance analysis : Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC), streaming, See What I See (SWIS) and multiplayer games
  • Presents a number of new WCDMA field measurement results: capacity, end-to-end performance and handovers
  • Includes completely updated antenna beamforming and multiuser detection sections featuring new simulation results
  • Introduces TD-SCDMA and compares it to Release’99 TDD


Table of Contents:




1 Introduction (Harri Holma, Antti Toskala and Ukko Lappalainen).

1.1 WCDMA in Third Generation Systems.

1.2 Air Interfaces and Spectrum Allocations for Third Generation Systems.

1.3 Schedule for Third Generation Systems.

1.4 Differences between WCDMA and Second Generation Air Interfaces.

1.5 Core Networks and Services.


2 UMTS Services and Applications (Harri Holma, Martin Kristensson, Jouni Salonen and Antti Toskala).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Person-to-Person Circuit Switched Services.

2.2.1 AMR Speech Service.

2.2.2 Video Telephony.

2.3 Person-to-Person Packet Switched Services.

2.3.1 Images and Multimedia.

2.3.2 Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC).

2.3.3 Voice over IP (VoIP).

2.3.4 Multiplayer Games.

2.4 Content-to-person Services.

2.4.1 Browsing.

2.4.2 Audio and Video Streaming.

2.4.3 Content Download.

2.4.4 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service, MBMS.

2.5 Business Connectivity.

2.6 IP Multimedia Sub-system, IMS.

2.7 Quality of Service Differentiation.

2.8 Capacity and Cost of Service Delivery.

2.8.1 Capacity per Subscriber.

2.8.2 Cost of Capacity Delivery.

2.9 Service Capabilities with Different Terminal Classes.

2.10 Location Services in WCDMA.

2.10.1 Location Services.

2.10.2 Cell Coverage Based Location Calculation.

2.10.3 Observed Time Difference Of Arrival, OTDOA.

2.10.4 Assisted GPS.


3 Introduction to WCDMA (Peter Muszynski and Harri Holma).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Summary of the Main Parameters in WCDMA.

3.3 Spreading and Despreading.

3.4 Multipath Radio Channels and Rake Reception.

3.5 Power Control.

3.6 Softer and Soft Handovers.


4 Background and Standardisation of WCDMA (Antti Toskala).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Background in Europe.

4.2.1 Wideband CDMA.

4.2.2 Wideband TDMA.

4.2.3 Wideband TDMA/CDMA.

4.2.4 OFDMA.

4.2.5 ODMA.

4.2.6 ETSI Selection.

4.3 Background in Japan.

4.4 Background in Korea.

4.5 Background in the United States.

4.5.1 W-CDMA N/A.

4.5.2 UWC-136.

4.5.3 cdma2000.

4.5.4 TR46.1.

4.5.5 WP-CDMA.

4.6 Creation of 3GPP.

4.7 How does 3GPP Operate?

4.8 Creation of 3GPP2.

4.9 Harmonisation Phase.

4.10 IMT-2000 Process in ITU.

4.11 Beyond 3GPP Release ’99.


5 Radio Access Network Architecture (Fabio Longoni, Atte Länsisalmi and Antti Toskala).

5.1 System Architecture.

5.2 UTRAN Architecture.

5.2.1 The Radio Network Controller.

5.2.2 The Node B (Base Station).

5.3 General Protocol Model for UTRAN Terrestrial Interfaces.

5.3.1 General.

5.3.2 Horizontal Layers.

5.3.3 Vertical Planes.

5.4 Iu, the UTRAN–CN Interface.

5.4.1 Protocol Structure for Iu CS.

5.4.2 Protocol Structure for Iu PS.

5.4.3 RANAP Protocol.

5.4.4 Iu User Plane Protocol.

5.4.5 Protocol Structure of Iu BC, and the SABP Protocol.

5.5 UTRAN Internal Interfaces.

5.5.1 RNC–RNC Interface (Iur Interface) and the RNSAP Signalling.

5.5.2 RNC–Node B Interface and the NBAP Signalling.

5.6 UTRAN Enhancements and Evolution.

5.6.1 IP Transport in UTRAN.

5.6.2 Iu Flex.

5.6.3 Stand Alone SMLC and Iupc Interface.

5.6.4 Interworking between GERAN and UTRAN, and the Iur-g Interface.

5.6.5 All IP RAN Concept.

5.7 UMTS Core Network Architecture and Evolution.

5.7.1 Release ’99 Core Network Elements.

5.7.2 Release 5 Core Network and IP Multimedia Sub-system.


6 Physical Layer (Antti Toskala).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Transport Channels and their Mapping to the Physical Channels.

6.2.1 Dedicated Transport Channel.

6.2.2 Common Transport Channels.

6.2.3 Mapping of Transport Channels onto the Physical Channels.

6.2.4 Frame Structure of Transport Channels.

6.3 Spreading and Modulation.

6.3.1 Scrambling.

6.3.2 Channelisation Codes.

6.3.3 Uplink Spreading and Modulation.

6.3.4 Downlink Spreading and Modulation.

6.3.5 Transmitter Characteristics.

6.4 User Data Transmission.

6.4.1 Uplink Dedicated Channe.

6.4.2 Uplink Multiplexing.

6.4.3 User Data Transmission with the Random Access Channel.

6.4.4 Uplink Common Packet Channel.

6.4.5 Downlink Dedicated Channel.

6.4.6 Downlink Multiplexing.

6.4.7 Downlink Shared Channel.

6.4.8 Forward Access Channel for User Data Transmission.

6.4.9 Channel Coding for User Data.

6.4.10 Coding for TFCI Information.

6.5 Signalling.

6.5.1 Common Pilot Channel (CPICH).

6.5.2 Synchronisation Channel (SCH).

6.5.3 Primary Common Control Physical Channel (Primary CCPCH).

6.5.4 Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (Secondary CCPCH).

6.5.5 Random Access Channel (RACH) for Signalling Transmission.

6.5.6 Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH).

6.5.7 Paging Indicator Channel (PICH).

6.5.8 Physical Channels for the CPCH Access Procedure.

6.6 Physical Layer Procedures.

6.6.1 Fast Closed Loop Power Control Procedure.

6.6.2 Open Loop Power Control.

6.6.3 Paging Procedure.

6.6.4 RACH Procedure.

6.6.5 CPCH Operation.

6.6.6 Cell Search Procedure.

6.6.7 Transmit Diversity Procedure.

6.6.8 Handover Measurements Procedure.

6.6.9 Compressed Mode Measurement Procedure.

6.6.10 Other Measurements.

6.6.11 Operation with Adaptive Antennas.

6.6.12 Site Selection Diversity Transmission.

6.7 Terminal Radio Access Capabilities.


7 Radio Interface Protocols (Jukka Vialén and Antti Toskala).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Protocol Architecture.

7.3 The Medium Access Control Protocol.

7.3.1 MAC Layer Architecture.

7.3.2 MAC Functions.

7.3.3 Logical Channels.

7.3.4 Mapping Between Logical Channels and Transport Channels.

7.3.5 Example Data Flow Through the MAC Layer.

7.4 The Radio Link Control Protocol.

7.4.1 RLC Layer Architecture.

7.4.2 RLC Functions.

7.4.3 Example Data Flow Through the RLC Layer.

7.5 The Packet Data Convergence Protocol.

7.5.1 PDCP Layer Architecture.

7.5.2 PDCP Functions.

7.6 The Broadcast/Multicast Control Protocol.

7.6.1 BMC Layer Architecture.

7.6.2 BMC Functions.

7.7 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service.

7.8 The Radio Resource Control Protocol.

7.8.1 RRC Layer Logical Architecture.

7.8.2 RRC Service States.

7.8.3 RRC Functions and Signalling Procedures.

7.9 Early UE Handling Principles.


8 Radio Network Planning (Harri Holma, Zhi-Chun Honkasalo, Seppo Hämäläinen, Jaana Laiho, Kari Sipilä and Achim Wacker).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Dimensioning.

8.2.1 Radio Link Budgets.

8.2.2 Load Factors.

8.2.3 Capacity Upgrade Paths.

8.2.4 Capacity per km2.

8.2.5 Soft Capacity.

8.2.6 Network Sharing.

8.3 Capacity and Coverage Planning and Optimisation.

8.3.1 Iterative Capacity and Coverage Prediction.

8.3.2 Planning Tool.

8.3.3 Case Study.

8.3.4 Network Optimisation.

8.4 GSM Co-planning.

8.5 Inter-operator Interference.

8.5.1 Introduction.

8.5.2 Uplink vs. Downlink Effects.

8.5.3 Local Downlink Interference.

8.5.4 Average Downlink Interference.

8.5.5 Path Loss Measurements.

8.5.6 Solutions to Avoid Adjacent Channel Interference.

8.6 WCDMA Frequency Variants.

8.6.1 Introduction.

8.6.2 Differences Between Frequency Variants.

8.6.3 WCDMA1900 in an Isolated 5 MHz Block.


9 Radio Resource Management (Harri Holma, Klaus Pedersen, Jussi Reunanen, Janne Laakso and Oscar Salonaho).

9.1 Interference-Based Radio Resource Management.

9.2 Power Control.

9.2.1 Fast Power Control.

9.2.2 Outer Loop Power Control.

9.3 Handovers.

9.3.1 Intra-frequency Handovers.

9.3.2 Inter-system Handovers Between WCDMA and GSM.

9.3.3 Inter-frequency Handovers within WCDMA.

9.3.4 Summary of Handovers.

9.4 Measurement of Air Interface Load.

9.4.1 Uplink Load.

9.4.2 Downlink Load.

9.5 Admission Control.

9.5.1 Admission Control Principle.

9.5.2 Wideband Power-Based Admission Control Strategy.

9.5.3 Throughput-Based Admission Control Strategy.

9.6 Load Control (Congestion Control).


10 Packet Scheduling (Jeroen Wigard, Harri Holma, Renaud Cuny, Nina Madsen, Frank Frederiksen and Martin Kristensson).

10.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

10.2 Round Trip Time.

10.3 User-specific Packet Scheduling.

10.3.1 Common Channels (RACH/FACH).

10.3.2 Dedicated Channel (DCH).

10.3.3 Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH).

10.3.4 Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH).

10.3.5 Selection of Transport Channel.

10.3.6 Paging Channel States.

10.4 Cell-specific Packet Scheduling.

10.4.1 Priorities.

10.4.2 Scheduling Algorithms.

10.4.3 Packet Scheduler in Soft Handover.

10.5 Packet Data System Performance.

10.5.1 Link Level Performance.

10.5.2 System Level Performance.

10.6 Packet Data Application Performance.

10.6.1 Introduction to Application Performance.

10.6.2 Person-to-person Applications.

10.6.3 Content-to-person Applications.

10.6.4 Business Connectivity.

10.6.5 Conclusions on Application Performance.


11 High-speed Downlink Packet Access (Antti Toskala, Harri Holma, Troels Kolding, Preben Mogensen, Klaus Pedersen and Karri Ranta-aho).

11.1 Release ’99 WCDMA Downlink Packet Data Capabilities.

11.2 HSDPA Concept.

11.3 HSDPA Impact on Radio Access Network Architecture.

11.4 Release 4 HSDPA Feasibility Study Phase.

11.5 HSDPA Physical Layer Structure.

11.5.1 High-speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH).

11.5.2 High-speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH).

11.5.3 Uplink High-speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH).

11.5.4 HSDPA Physical Layer Operation Procedure.

11.6 HSDPA Terminal Capability and Achievable Data Rates.

11.7 Mobility with HSDPA.

11.7.1 Measurement Event for Best Serving HS-DSCH Cell.

11.7.2 Intra-Node B HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH Handover.

11.7.3 Inter-Node B HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH Handover.

11.7.4 HS-DSCH to DCH Handover.

11.8 HSDPA Performance.

11.8.1 Factors Governing Performance.

11.8.2 Spectral Efficiency, Code Efficiency and Dynamic Range.

11.8.3 User Scheduling, Cell Throughput and Coverage.

11.8.4 HSDPA Network Performance with Mixed Non-HSDPA and HSDPA Terminals.

11.9 Terminal Receiver Aspects.

11.10 Evolution Beyond Release 5.

11.10.1 Multiple Receiver and Transmit Antenna Techniques.

11.10.2 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA).

11.11 Conclusion.


12 Physical Layer Performance (Harri Holma, Jussi Reunanen, Leo Chan, Preben Mogensen, Klaus Pedersen, Kari Horneman, Jaakko Vihria¨la¨ and Markku Juntti).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Cell Coverage.

12.2.1 Uplink Coverage.

12.2.2 Downlink Coverage.

12.3 Downlink Cell Capacity.

12.3.1 Downlink Orthogonal Codes.

12.3.2 Downlink Transmit Diversity.

12.3.3 Downlink Voice Capacity.

12.4 Capacity Trials.

12.4.1 Single Cell Capacity Trials.

12.4.2 Multicell Capacity Trials.

12.4.3 Summary.

12.5 3GPP Performance Requirements.

12.5.1 Eb/N0 Performance.

12.5.2 RF Noise Figure.

12.6 Performance Enhancements.

12.6.1 Smart Antenna Solutions.

12.6.2 Multiuser Detection.


13 UTRA TDD Modes (Antti Toskala, Harri Holma, Otto Lehtinen and Heli Väätäjä).

13.1 Introduction.

13.1.1 Time Division Duplex (TDD).

13.1.2 Differences in the Network Level Architecture.

13.2 UTRA TDD Physical Layer.

13.2.1 Transport and Physical Channels.

13.2.2 Modulation and Spreading.

13.2.3 Physical Channel Structures, Slot and Frame Format.

13.2.4 UTRA TDD Physical Layer Procedures.

13.3 UTRA TDD Interference Evaluation.

13.3.1 TDD–TDD Interference.

13.3.2 TDD and FDD Co-existence.

13.3.3 Unlicensed TDD Operation.

13.3.4 Conclusions on UTRA TDD Interference.

13.4 HSDPA Operation with TDD.

13.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook on UTRA TDD.


14 cdma2000 (Antti Toskala).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Logical Channels.

14.2.1 Physical Channels.

14.3 Multicarrier Mode Spreading and Modulation.

14.3.1 Uplink Spreading and Modulation.

14.3.2 Downlink Spreading and Modulation.

14.4 User Data Transmission.

14.4.1 Uplink Data Transmission.

14.4.2 Downlink Data Transmission.

14.4.3 Channel Coding for User Data.

14.5 Signalling.

14.5.1 Pilot Channel.

14.5.2 Synch Channel.

14.5.3 Broadcast Channel.

14.5.4 Quick Paging Channel.

14.5.5 Common Power Control Channel.

14.5.6 Common and Dedicated Control Channels.

14.5.7 Random Access Channel (RACH) for Signalling Transmission.

14.6 Physical Layer Procedures.

14.6.1 Power Control Procedure.

14.6.2 Cell Search Procedure.

14.6.3 Random Access Procedure.

14.6.4 Handover Measurements Procedure.