Introductory Quantum Optics (Paperback)

Christopher Gerry

  • 出版商: Cambridge
  • 出版日期: 2004-10-28
  • 定價: $2,830
  • 售價: 9.8$2,770
  • 貴賓價: 9.3$2,632
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 332
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 052152735X
  • ISBN-13: 9780521527354
  • 相關分類: 光學 Optics量子 Quantum
  • 相關翻譯: 量子光學導論 (簡中版)

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Description:

This elementary introduction to the subject of quantum optics, the study of the quantum mechanical nature of light and its interaction with matter, is almost entirely concerned with the quantized electromagnetic field. The text is designed for upper-level undergraduates taking courses in quantum optics who have already taken a course in quantum mechanics, and for first- and second- year graduate students.

 

Table of Contents:

 

Acknowledgements page xii
 
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Scope and aims of this book 1
1.2 History 2
1.3 The contents of this book 7
      References 8
      Suggestions for further reading 8
 
2 Field quantization 10
2.1 Quantization of a single-mode field 10
2.2 Quantum fluctuations of a single-mode field 15
2.3 Quadrature operators for a single-mode field 17
2.4 Multimode fields 18
2.5 Thermal fields 25
2.6 Vacuum fluctuations and the zero-point energy 29
2.7 The quantum phase 33
      Problems 40
      References 41
      Bibliography 42
 
3 Coherent states 43
3.1 Eigenstates of the annihilation operator and minimum uncertainty states 43
3.2 Displaced vacuum states 48
3.3 Wave packets and time evolution 50
3.4 Generation of coherent states 52
3.5 More on the properties of coherent states 53
3.6 Phase-space pictures of coherent states 56
3.7 Density operators and phase-space probability distributions 59
3.8 Characteristic functions 65
      Problems 71
      References 72
      Bibliography 73
 
4 Emission and absorption of radiation by atoms 74
4.1 Atom–field interactions 74
4.2 Interaction of an atom with a classical field 76
4.3 Interaction of an atom with a quantized field 82
4.4 The Rabi model 87
4.5 Fully quantum-mechanical model; the Jaynes–Cummings model 90
4.6 The dressed states 99
4.7 Density-operator approach: application to thermal states 102
4.8 The Jaynes–Cummings model with large detuning: a dispersive interaction 105
4.9 Extensions of the Jaynes–Cummings model 107
4.10 Schmidt decomposition and von Neumann entropy for the Jaynes–Cummings model 108
      Problems 110
      References 113
      Bibliography 114
 
5 Quantum coherence functions 115
5.1 Classical coherence functions 115
5.2 Quantum coherence functions 120
5.3 Young’s interference 124
5.4 Higher-order coherence functions 127
      Problems 133
      References 133
      Bibliography 134
 
6 Beam splitters and interferometers 135
6.1 Experiments with single photons 135
6.2 Quantum mechanics of beam splitters 137
6.3 Interferometry with a single photon 143
6.4 Interaction-free measurement 144
6.5 Interferometry with coherent states of light 146
      Problems 147
      References 149
      Bibliography 149
 
7 Nonclassical light 150
7.1 Quadrature squeezing 150
7.2 Generation of quadrature squeezed light 165
7.3 Detection of quadrature squeezed light 167
7.4 Amplitude (or number) squeezed states 169
7.5 Photon antibunching 171
7.6 Schrödinger cat states 174
7.7 Two-mode squeezed vacuum states 182
7.8 Higher-order squeezing 188
7.9 Broadband squeezed light 189
      Problems 190
      References 192
      Bibliography 194
 
8 Dissipative interactions and decoherence 195
8.1 Introduction 195
8.2 Single realizations or ensembles? 196
8.3 Individual realizations 200
8.4 Shelving and telegraph dynamics in three-level atoms 204
8.5 Decoherence 207
8.6 Generation of coherent states from decoherence: nonlinear optical balance 208
8.7 Conclusions 210
      Problems 211
      References 211
      Bibliography 212
 
9 Optical test of quantum mechanics 213
9.1 Photon sources: spontaneous parametric down-conversion 214
9.2 The Hong–Ou–Mandel interferometer 217
9.3 The quantum eraser 219
9.4 Induced coherence 222
9.5 Superluminal tunneling of photons 224
9.6 Optical test of local realistic theories and Bell’s theorem 226
9.7 Franson’s experiment 232
9.8 Applications of down-converted light to metrology without absolute standards 233
      Problems 235
      References 236
      Bibliography 237
 
10 Experiments in cavity QED and with trapped ions 238
10.1 Rydberg atoms 238
10.2 Rydberg atom interacting with a cavity field 241
10.3 Experimental realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model 246
10.4 Creating entangled atoms in CQED 249
10.5 Formation of Schrödinger cat states with dispersive atom–field interactions and decoherence from the quantum to the classical 250
10.6 Quantum nondemolition measurement of photon number 254
10.7 Realization of the Jaynes–Cummings interaction in the motion of a trapped ion 255
10.8 Concluding remarks 258
      Problems 259
      References 260
      Bibliography 261
 
11 Applications of entanglement: Heisenberg-limited interferometry and quantum information processing 263
11.1 The entanglement advantage 264
11.2 Entanglement and interferometric measurements 265
11.3 Quantum teleportation 268
11.4 Cryptography 270
11.5 Private key crypto-systems 271
11.6 Public key crypto-systems 273
11.7 The quantum random number generator 274
11.8 Quantum cryptography 275
11.9 Future prospects for quantum communication 281
11.10 Gates for quantum computation 281
11.11 An optical realization of some quantum gates 286
11.12 Decoherence and quantum error correction 289
      Problems 290
      References 291
      Bibliography 293
 
  Appendix A The density operator, entangled states, the Schmidt decomposition, and the von Neumann entropy 294
A.1 The density operator 294
A.2 Two-state system and the Bloch sphere 297
A.3 Entangled states 298
A.4 Schmidt decomposition 299
A.5 von Neumann entropy 301
A.6 Dynamics of the density operator 302
      References 303
      Bibliography 303
 
  Appendix B Quantum measurement theory in a (very small) nutshell 304
      Bibliography 307
 
  Appendix C Derivation of the effective Hamiltonian for dispersive (far off-resonant) interactions 308
      References 311
 
  Appendix D Nonlinear optics and spontaneous parametric down-conversion 312
      References 313
 
Index 314