This book is a practical guide about designing, building and programming modern robotics systems. It presents a collection of wide range research results from the robotics community. Various aspects of current research in robotics area are explored and discussed. In particular, the major part of the book is devoted to robotic vision systems, robot navigation, human-robot interactions and adaptive learning systems. Different approaches including theorems and formal proofs for these systems are provided. Some advanced mathematics will be involved. There are totally 15 chapters in this book.Chapter 1 analyzes and compares two robotics frameworks based on the identified requirements, and discusses the benefits and drawbacks of using robotics frameworks. Chapter 2 shows how mechatronics and robotics are fused with objects of daily life to become assistive systems, and thus become an integral part of our built environment. Chapter 3 describes a new framework for solving robotic navigation problems in a continuous environment. The framework balances between exploration and exploitation, and integrates global planning algorithms, local navigation routines, and exploration procedures in order to achieve the global goal. Chapter 4 addresses the Coverage Path Planning (CPP) problem applied to aerial robots whose mission is to visual cover a determinate wide area. Chapter 5 proposes a planning method to unravel deformable linear objects based on their silhouette, which corresponds to imperfect state information. Chapter 6 proposes a design method for the wheeled vehicle with the passive linkage mechanism for increasing step-climbing performance. Chapter 7 proposes an algorithm for identifying structural motifs. Chapter 8 discusses how we can use Reinforcement Learning to learn how to move a group of servos in order to achieve a motion behavior. Chapter 9 reviews the most widely adopted calibration procedures for industrial robots. In Chapter 10, the complete mathematical model of a highly complex and rigid-flexible coupling mechanical system is deduced, using the classical approach of Newton-Euler Method. Chapter 11 presents computationally efficient algorithms for the calculation of the Jacobian and direct dynamics of elastic parallel manipulators. Chapter 12 proposed a PDE based approach for grayscale image restoration. Chapter 13 presents development and research applying new approaches and means for the design of a Modular multi-Applicable Neural Network (MANN) classification structure with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for industrial implementation. Chapter 14 proposes a framework for on-line novelty detection using artificial vision as main sensory input in autonomous mobile robots. Finally, chapter 15 discusses the difficulties of control system design and implement, as well as proposes a framework for tackling controller design under the context of lacking reliable information. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and postgraduate students. It takes a practical approach rather than a conceptual approach. It offers a truly reader-friendly way to get to the subject related to the semantic web, making it the ideal resources for any student who is new to this subject and providing a definitive guide to anyone in this vibrant and evolving discipline. This book is an invaluable companion for students from their first encounter with the subject to more advanced studies, while the full-color artworks are designed to present the key concepts with simplicity, clarity and consistency.