Ultra-Wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging
Ben Allen, Mischa Dohler, Ernest Okon, Wasim Malik, Anthony Brow
Providing up-to-date material for UWB antennas and propagation as used in a wide variety of applications, "Ultra-wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging" includes fundamental theory, practical design information and extensive discussion of UWB applications from biomedical imaging, through to radar and wireless communications.
An in-depth treatment of ultra-wideband signals in practical environments is given, including interference, coexistence and diversity considerations. The text includes antennas and propagation in biological media in addition to more conventional environments. The topics covered are approached with the aim of helping practising engineers to view the subject from a different angle, and to consider items as variables that were treated as constants in narrowband and wideband systems.
- Features tables of propagation data, photographs of antenna systems and graphs of results (e.g. radiation patterns, propagation characteristics)
- Covers the fundamentals of antennas and propagation, as well as offering an in-depth treatment of antenna elements and arrays for UWB systems, and UWB propagation models
- Provides a description of the underlying concepts for the design of antennas and arrays for conventional as well as ultra-wideband systems
- Draws together UWB theory by using case-studies to show applications of antennas and propagation in communication, radar and imaging systems
The book highlights the unique design issues of using ultra-wideband and will serve both as an introductory text and a reference guide for designers and students alike.
Table of Contents
Prime Contributors xvii.
Abbreviations & Acronyms.
1. Introduction to UWB Signals and Systems.
1.1 History of UWB.
1.3 UWB Signals and Systems.
1.4 Frequency Regulation.
1.5 Applications, Operating Scenarios and Standardisation.
1.6 System Outlook.
Part I: Fundamentals.
2. Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory.
2.2 Maxwell’s Equations.
2.3 Resulting Principles.
3. Basic Antenna Elements.
3.2 Hertzian Dipole.
3.3 Antenna Parameters and Terminology.
3.4 Basic Antenna Elements.
4. Antenna Arrays.
4.2 Point Sources.
4.3 The Principle of Pattern Multiplication.
4.4 Linear Arrays of Elements.
4.5 Linear Broadside Arrays with Nonuniform Amplitude Distributions.
4.6 Planar Arrays.
4.7 Design Considerations.
5.2 Antenna Arrays.
5.3 Adaptive Array Systems.
6. Antenna Diversity Techniques.
6.2 A Review of Fading.
6.3 Receive Diversity.
6.4 Transmit Diversity.
6.5 Mimo Diversity Systems.
Part II: Fundamentals.
7. Theory of UWB Antenna Elements.
7.2 Mechanism of UWB Monopole Antennas.
7.3 Planar UWB Monopole Antennas.
7.4 Planar UWB Slot Antennas.
7.5 Time-Domain Characteristics of Monopoles.
8. Antenna Elements for Impulse Radio.
8.2 UWB Antenna Classification and Design Considerations.
8.3 Omnidirectional and Directional Designs.
9. Planar Dipole-like Antennas for Consumer Products.
9.2 Computer Modelling and Measurement Techniques.
9.3 Bicone Antennas and the Lossy Transmission Line Model.
9.4 Planar Dipoles.
9.5 Practical Antennas.
10. UWB Antenna Elements for Consumer Electronic Applications.
10.2 Numerical Modelling and Extraction of the UWB Characterisation.
10.3 Antenna Design and Integration.
10.4 Propagation Modelling.
10.5 System Analysis.
11. Ultra-wideband Arrays.
11.2 Linear Arrays.
11.3 Null and Maximum Directions for Uniform Arrays.
11.4 Phased Arrays.
11.5 Elements for UWB Array Design.
11.6 Modelling Considerations.
11.7 Feed Configurations.
11.8 Design Considerations.
12. UWB Beamforming.
12.2 Basic Concept.
12.3 A Simple Delay-line Transmitter Wideband Array.
12.4 UWB Mono-pulse Arrays.
Part III: Propagation Measurements and Modelling for UWB Communications.
13. Analysis of UWB Signal Attenuation Through Typical Building Materials.
13.2 A Brief Overview of Channel Characteristics.
13.3 The Materials Under Test.
13.4 Experimental Campaign.
14. Large- and Medium-scale Propagation Modelling.
14.2 Deterministic Models.
14.3 Statistical-Empirical Models.
14.4 Standardised Reference Models.
15. Small-scale Ultra-wideband Propagation Modelling.
15.2 Small-scale Channel Modelling.
15.3 Spatial Modelling.
15.4 IEEE 802.15.3a Standard Model.
15.5 IEEE 802.15.4a Standard Model.
16. Antenna Design and Propagation Measurements and Modelling.
for UWBWireless BAN.
16.2 Propagation Channel Measurements and Characteristics.
16.3 WBAN Channel Modelling.
16.4 UWB System-Level Modelling of Potential Body-Centric Networks.
17. Ultra-wideband Spatial Channel Characteristics.
17.3 UWB Spatial Channel Representation.
17.4 Characterisation Techniques.
17.5 Increase in the Communication Rate.
17.6 Signal Quality Improvement.
17.7 Performance Parameters.
Part IV: UWB Radar, Imaging and Ranging.
18. Localisation in NLOS Scenarios with UWB Antenna Arrays.
18.2 Underlying Mathematical Framework.
18.3 Properties of UWB Beamforming.
18.4 Beamloc Approach.
18.5 Algorithmic Framework.
18.6 Time-delay Estimation.
18.7 Simulation Results.
19. Antennas for Ground-penetrating Radar.
19.2 GPR Example Applications.
19.3 Analysis and GPR Design.
19.4 Antenna Elements.
19.5 Antenna Measurements, Analysis and Simulation.
20. Wideband Antennas for Biomedical Imaging.
20.2 Detection and Imaging.
20.3 Waveform Choice and Antenna Design Criteria.
20.4 Antenna Elements.
20.5 Measurements, Analysis and Simulation.
21. UWB Antennas for Radar and Related Applications.
21.2 Medium- and Long-Range Radar.
21.3 UWB Reflector Antennas.
21.4 UWB Feed Designs.
21.5 Feeds with Low Dispersion.