Analog IC Design with Low-Dropout Regulators, 2/e (IE-Paperback)

Gabriel Rincon-Mora




This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays

In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Advanced designs such as small-size CP antennas, broadband, wideband and ultra-wideband CP antennas are also discussed, as well as multi-band CP antennas and dual CP antennas. The design and analysis of different types of CP array antennas such as broadband CP patch arrays, dual-band CP arrays, CP printed slot arrays, single-band and multi-band CP reflectarrays, high-gain CP waveguide slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antenna arrays, CP active arrays, millimetre-waveband CP arrays in LTCC, and CP arrays with electronically beam-switching or beam-steering capabilities are described in detail. Case studies are provided to illustrate the design and implementation of CP antennas in practical scenarios such as dual-band Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, satellite communication mobile terminals at the S-band, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers at 2.4 GHz, and Ka-band high-speed satellite communication applications. It also includes the detailed designs for a wideband Logarithmic spiral antenna that can operate from 3.4-7.7 GHz. In addition, the book offers a detailed review of the recent developments of different types of CP antennas and arrays.

Presents comprehensive discussions of design techniques for different types of CP antennas: small-size CP antennas, broadband CP antennas, multi-band CP antennas and CP arrays.
Covers a wide range of antenna technologies such as microstrip antennas, helix, quadrifilar helix antenna, printed quadrifilar helix antenna, dielectric resonator antennas, printed slots, spiral antennas, monopoles, waveguide slot arrays, reflectarrays, active arrays, millimetre-wave arrays in LTCC, electronically beam-switching arrays and electronically beam-steerable arrays.
Reviews recent developments in different types of CP antennas and arrays, reported by industries, researchers and academics worldwide.
Includes numerous case studies to demonstrate how to design and implement different CP antennas in practical scenarios.
Provides both an introduction for students in the field and an in-depth reference for antenna/RF engineers who work on the development of CP antennas.

Circularly Polarized Antennas will be an invaluable guide for researchers in R&D organizations; system engineers (antenna, telecom, space and satellite); postgraduates studying the subjects of antenna and propagation, electromagnetics, RF/microwave/millimetre-wave systems, satellite communications and so on; technical managers and professionals in the areas of antennas and propagation.


Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Abbreviations and Acronyms xiii

1 Introduction to Circularly Polarized Antennas 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Antenna Parameters 2

1.3 Basic CP Antenna Types 7

1.4 Antenna Modelling Techniques 23

1.5 Typical Requirements and Challenges in CP Antenna Designs 24

1.6 Summary 25

References 25

2 Small Circularly Polarized Antenna 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Basic Theory of Antenna Size Reduction 29

2.3 Small CP Patch Antennas 30

2.4 Small Helix, QHAs and PQHAs 46

2.5 Small CP Slot Antennas 53

2.6 Small CP DRAs 59

2.7 Other Small CP Antennas 63

2.8 Summary 66

References 69

3 Broadband Circularly Polarized Antennas 73

3.1 Introduction 73

3.2 Broadband CP Microstrip Patch Antennas 73

3.3 Broadband Helix, QHAs and PQHAs 93

3.4 Spiral Antennas 103

3.5 Broadband CP Slot Antennas 106

3.6 Broadband CP DRAs 116

3.7 Broadband CP Loop Antennas 120

3.8 Other Broadband CP Antennas 123

3.9 Summary 124

References 126

4 Multi-Band Circularly Polarized Antennas 131

4.1 Introduction 131

4.2 Multi-Band CP Microstrip Patch Antennas 131

4.3 Multi-Band QHAs and PQHAs 150

4.4 Multi-Band CP Slot Antennas 158

4.5 Multi-Band CP DRAs 171

4.6 Multi-Band CP Loop Antennas 175

4.7 Other Multi-Band CP Antennas 177

4.8 Summary 186

References 187

5 Circularly Polarized Arrays 191

5.1 Introduction 191

5.2 CP Patch Antenna Arrays 191

5.3 CP Dielectric Resonator Antenna Arrays 203

5.4 CP Slot Array Antenna 210

5.5 CP Printed Reflectarrays 222

5.6 Integrated CP Array and Active CP Array 234

5.7 CP Array with Reconfigurable Beams 243

5.8 Other CP Arrays 252

5.9 Summary 258

References 258

6 Case Studies 263

6.1 Introduction 263

6.2 Dual-Band CP Patch Array for GNSS Reflectometry Receiver on Board Small Satellites 263

6.3 Small Printed Quadrifilar Helix Antenna for Mobile Terminals in Satellite communications 271

6.4 Printed Broadband CP Rectangular Bi-Loop Antenna for RFID Readers 278

6.5 CP Reflectarray for Ka Band Satellite Communications 284

6.6 Circularly Polarized Logarithmic Spiral Antenna with a Wideband Balun 293

6.7 Summary 301

References 303

Index 305


本書全面介紹了不同類型圓極化(CP)天線元件和陣列的設計技術。首先,本書介紹了基本原理、設計技術和各種類型的CP天線的特性,如CP貼片天線、CP螺旋天線、四螺旋天線(QHA)、印刷四螺旋天線(PQHA)、螺旋天線、CP槽天線、CP介電共振天線、環形天線、交叉雙極子、單極子和CP喇叭。還討論了小型CP天線、寬頻、超寬頻CP天線以及多頻段CP天線和雙CP天線等先進設計,並詳細描述了不同類型的CP陣列天線的設計和分析,如寬頻CP貼片陣列、雙頻CP陣列、CP印刷槽陣列、單頻段和多頻段CP反射陣列、高增益CP波導槽天線、CP介電共振器天線陣列、CP主動陣列、LTCC中的毫米波CP陣列以及具有電子波束切換或波束轉向能力的CP陣列。提供了案例研究,以說明在實際情況下設計和實施CP天線的方法,例如雙頻全球導航衛星系統(GNSS)接收器、S頻段衛星通信移動終端、2.4 GHz的射頻識別(RFID)讀卡器以及Ka頻段高速衛星通信應用。還包括一個從3.4-7.7 GHz運行的寬頻對數螺旋天線的詳細設計。此外,本書還詳細回顧了不同類型的CP天線和陣列的最新發展。本書將對研發機構的研究人員、系統工程師(天線、電信、太空和衛星)、攻讀天線和傳播、電磁學、射頻/微波/毫米波系統、衛星通信等專業的研究生、技術經理和天線傳播領域的專業人士提供寶貴的指南。