This book discusses light-based science, emphasizing its pervasive influence in science, technology, policy, and education. A wide range of contributors offers a comprehensive study of the tremendous, and indeed foundational, contributions of Ibn al Haytham, a scholar from the medieval period. The analysis then moves into the future development of light-based technology. Written as a multi-disciplinary reference book by leading scholars in the history of science and /or photonics, it covers Ibn al Haytham’s optics, LED lighting for sustainable development, global and atomic-scale time with new light sources, advanced technology, and vision science. Cutting-edge optical technologies and their global impact is addressed in detail, and the later chapters also explore challenges with renewable energy, the global impact of photonics, and optical and photonic education technology. Practical examples and illustrations are provided throughout the text.